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1066-1799. Written and Illustrated by Marjorie and 



1066-1499. With 90 Illustrations, many full-page, and 5 Plates 
in Colour. Fourth Impression. 

Contents : — Norman England and its People : Conditions before 
the Conquest — Norman Castles — Monasteries — The Domesday Survey — 
The Peasantry. England in the Thirteenth Century : Costume- 
Monks and Pilgrims — Early English Halls and Manor Houses — Warfare 
in the Middle Ages — Farms and Gardens — Amusements. The Four- 
teenth Century : Manners, Customs, Food and Dress — Ships and Sea 
Battles — Travelling — The Black Death. Life in Fifteenth Century 
England : The Merchant Adventurers — Houses and Furniture — Hunting 
and Jousts — Games, Mysteries, and Morris Dancers — Dress, Jewellery, 
and Ornaments — End of the Mediaeval Period. 
"A model of book production, exquisite in type, in line drawing, in colour 
printing." — The Times. 


1500-1799. By Marjorie and C. H. B. Quennell. With 
4 Coloured Plates and 1 1 1 other Illustrations from the Authors' 
Drawings. Second Impression. 

Contents : — The XVIth Century : The Reformation— Ships and 

Sea Power — Effect of the Renaissance on Everyday Things — Homes and 

Furniture- — Costumes — Schools — Games — Hunting and Archery — The 

Theatre. The XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuriks : Costume— Ships— 

The Great Houses and their Builders — Food and Cooking— Gardens — 

Musical Instruments — Coaches and Sedan Chairs — Characteristics. 

In order to meet more suitably and conveniently the great demand for this 

work as an educational text-book, it is now obtainable in six separate parts, 

each covering a special period of historical development of about a century, 

appropriate for a term's study. Each part has its own title, contents, and 

full index; the illustrations are all given, and the coloured plates and 

historical comparative charts are also included. Bound in stiff paper covers 

(with the original special design), at 3s. each part. 

Part I. England under Foreign 
Kings (1066-1199). Con- 
taining 2 Colour Plates, 5 
full-page line Illustrations, 
and 15 Illustrations in the 

Part II. TheRiseof Parliament 

(1200-1399). Containing 2 
Colour Plates, 18 full-page 
line Illustrations, and 22 
Illustrations in the Text. 
Part III. The Hundred Years' 
War (1400-1499). Con- 
taining I Colour Plate, 11 
full-page line Illustrations, 
and 13 Illustrations in the 

Part IV. The Age of Adven- 
ture (1500-1599). Contain- 
ing 2 Colour Plates, 16 full- 
page line Illustrations, and 
30 Illustrations in the Text. 

Part V. The Crown's Bid for 
Power (1600-1699). Con- 
taining i Colour Plate, 11 
full-page line Illustrations, 
and 21 Illustrations in the 

Part VI. The Rise of Modern 
England (1700 - 1799). 

Containing i Colour Plate, 
II full-page line Illustrations, 
and 19 Illustrations in the 

Fu;. I. — Magdalenian Paintin". 





Written y Illustrated by 


Authors of " Everyday Things in England " 

, ^ / V 
0. "^ 








Contents, Introduction, etc. 


i— X 


To face 


Text, including Figures 1-70 







Contents, Introduction, etc. . . i-x 

Map and Chart . . To face I 


Text, including Figures 1-44 

THE BRONZE AGE . . . 51-81 

Text, including Figures 45-64 

THE EARLY IRON AGE . . 82-117 

Text, including Figures 65-90 
Index, . . . .118-119 



brother scientists who condemned this idea, pointing out 
that Hfe must start at some definite point, and spread from 
this centre to other parts of the world. For the ordinary 
man, it seems sufficient to suppose that if you find the 
same kind of fossil in the limestones of America and 
England, and find the limestone itself in the same relative 
position to the other strata, then if the two are not twin 
brothers they must be most nearly related. The modern 
scientist can find out by observation how long the delta of 
a river, or any other form of sediment, takes to accumulate. 
In this way they form a scale by which they can also 
estimate the age of the older deposits. 

To revert then to our strata : The Chart (p. xi) shows 
the Geological Periods and the stratified rocks. These 
latter are shown in the order in which they were deposited, 
starting from the bottom upwards. To illustrate this more 
fully, we give a section across Wales and England (Fig. 3). 

,6 '9Zi!iJL^j^ ,M E 

Fig. 3. — Section across Wales and England. 

We have Snowdon in the west at A. Its base at i is built 
on Pre-Cambrian, Cambrian, and Ordovician rocks, and there 
is an outcrop of these more to the east. Eruptive rocks 
appear at 3, and the Silurian at 4. The Devonian at 5, 
and at 6 the Gneiss at Malvern. All this west part of 
England has been disturbed, and the many skins or strata 
of the earth distorted by enormous physical disturbances. 
At B are the Malverns, and here there is a fault or break 
in the stratum, but as we go east the geological conditions 
become easier to understand ; 8 and 9 are Red Marl or 
Triassic ; 10 the Lias. At C we have the Cotswold Hills 
composed of the Oolites, 1 1 ; the Lias and Oolites are 
Jurassic. This is overlaid by the Greensand at 12, and the 
Chalk of the Chiltern Hills at 13; these are Cretaceous. 
Then we have the Eocene beds at 14. 

We shall not be very concerned with the primary rocks 
in our study of prehistoric life, but shall soon come across 
references to those of the Mesozoic, or Secondary Period. 



Here we find the Cretaceous, or chalk beds, and it was 
in these that primitive man in Britain dug for the flmts 
he needed to make his implements. 

Perhaps the next of our difficulties will be the constant 
reference which is made by the archaeologists to the Ice 
Ages, and times when the climate of England was much 
colder than it is now ; when we had glaciers here, and the 
North Sea was a solid mass of ice uniting Scandmavia 
with East Anglia. There are many theories as to how 
this came about. 

We all know that the earth revolves round the sun 
on a path which is called its orbit. It completes the circle 
in a year, and turns on its own axis in so doing once a day, 

1 JV 




Fig. 4. — Causes of the Ice Ages. 

or 365 times in the year. As the earth turns round on 
its axis, the part which is toward the sun enjoys daylight, 
and in the part which is away, the people sleep because it 
is the night. 

It is quite a good plan to make a rough working model of 
all this on the dining-room table, as Fig. 4, and if the 
family possesses a globe it will help. If not, let an orange 
take the place of the earth, and drive a knitting-needle 
through it for the axis. You can eat the Earth afterwards. 
A candle in the middle of the table can be the sun. If 
the table is circular, the edge can be the earth's orbit ; 
if not we can draw one in chalk. If on this path, the 
knitting-needle is placed in a vertical position, so that the 
equator of the orange, or earth, is level with the candle, 



or sun, then it can be seen that the equator will derive more 
light from the candle than the top and bottom where 
the knitting-needle comes through. So we discover in 
the case of the earth, that the equator is hotter than the 
polar caps, because it gets more sunshine. If we move 
the orange round the orbit, turning it as we go, but keeping 
the knitting-needle upright, we arrive at day and night, 
heat and cold, but not summer and winter, or why, when 
we have summer, Australia has winter ; but let the 
knitting-needle lean over, and we have an entirely different 
state of affairs. This is what has happened, and to-day 
the angle of inclination of the equator to the orbit of the 
earth is 23° 27'. Our diagram (Fig. 4) shows how this 
affects the seasons. 

The Vernal Equinox of 21st March is shown at position 
I, when day and night are equal. At the Summer Solstice 
on 2 1 St June, position 2, all the North Hemisphere will be 
turned towards the sun, and we get the longest days. 
At the Autumnal Equinox, 23rd September, position 3, 
day and night are again equal. The Winter Solstice, 
position 4, comes on 21st December with the shortest day, 
and the Northern Hemisphere leans away from the sun 
and warmth. 

The scientists tell us that this inclination of the equator 
to the earth's orbit, through long ages, varies from 22° 6' 
to 24° 50'. The former would give us less difference 
between winter and summer than we have now, the latter 
would increase the difference. The shape of the earth's 
orbit changes, and sometimes is roughly elliptical, with 
the sun much nearer to one end than the other. This 
would mean short summers and long cold winters. 

There is what is called the Precession of the Equinoxes ; 
the earth wobbles as it spins, and this further affects the 
inclination of the axis. The Gulf Stream gives us now 
a better climate than our latitude entitles us to. When 
we bear in mind that the scientists tell us that a very small 
fall in the temperature would bring back the snow and 
ice, then it is easy to see how a combination of the con- 
ditions we have mentioned may have caused the Ice Ages. 

There is no need for alarm, and we need not rush off 
to buy skates in preparation for the next Ice Age. 
Thousands of years pass as the earth slowly wobbles on 



its journey. If we refer to the Chart, we shall see how all 
through Pliocene times weather conditions became colder, 
and culminated in the first Ice Age — then came a more 
genial time which the scientists call the First Interglacial 
Period, because they have arrived at the conclusion that 
there were four glacial periods, with three interglacial 
periods in between, and a post-glacial one after the fourth 
glacial period. We may be living in an interglacial period 

The next of our difficulties may be the constant reference 
which the archasologist makes to the action of Glaciers ; 
to large surfaces of land being denuded and deposited 
elsewhere, and to a period which is referred to as that of 
the River Drift. We will start with the Glaciers. 

A glacier is a very slowly moving river of ice. Gather- 
ing its forces from the snowfields on the summits of the 
mountains, it moves by gravity down the valleys, and 
collects tributaries as it goes along. In doing this the 
snow solidifies into ice, and it is quite easy to see that a 
tremendous pressure must be exercised on the sides of 
the valleys. If we go into a mountainous region, which 
during the Ice Age had glaciers, we shall find plenty of 
evidence of their existence. The sides of the valleys have 
been worn smooth by the slowly moving mass of ice 
grinding into the rocks (roches moutonnSes), there will also 
be piles of splintered rocks which are called moraines. 
The intense cold causes the rocks above the valley to 
crack and splinter, and fragments fall, and are left as 
embankments at the sides, or rolling on to the ice are 
carried along. These are called lateral moraines (i. Fig. 5). 
Where two glaciers join, these meet, and flowing down the 
middle of the lower glaciers are called medial moraines 
(2, Fig. 5). In this way glaciers transport materials for long 
distances. The debris of the lateral moraines falls into 
crevasses, or cracks in the ice, and appears lower down in 
the terminal moraines. 

The glacier moving downhill, comes to a place where 
the temperature is warmer, and the ice melts. Here we 
find what is called a terminal moraine or moraine girdle 
(3. Fig- 5)- These are generally fan-shaped, and represent 
the heap of broken rock and stone, which has been pushed 
forward under the nose of the glacier, and gathered up by 


Fig. 5. — Glaciers and Moraines. 



it in its progress from the bed and sides of the valleys. 
The existence of old moraine girdles, which have become 
covered with soil and trees, and now look like hills, is a 
proof of ice conditions in former times. There are girdle 
moraines as far west as Lyons in France, which prove that 
the Swiss glaciers were once of enormous length. High 
up on the sides of valleys, the roches mouionnSes show that 
the glaciers were once very much deeper. All those 
facts help the scientists in their conclusions as to the 
duration of the Ice Ages, and the temperature general 

Behind a moraine girdle, in the bed of the old glacier, we 
find a sort of enormous basin, filled with hummocks of 
boulder clay, called drumlins, at 4, To make this apparent 
the ice of the glacier has been broken away at 5, This 
clay is the mud which was brought down by the glacier, 
and was formed by the churning action of its underside 
on the rocks over which it passed. 

Below the moraine girdle, we find what the Germans 
call Schotter fields. It is here, where the ice melts, that 
the river comes into being, carrying away the smaller pieces 
of rock, depositing them first in the shotter, then breaking 
and rolling the pieces until lower down we find them in 
the gravel formations of the river terraces. Our readers, 
perhaps, will know a river whose banks descend in terraced 
steps ; it is a very usual formation. This connection 
between the glaciers, their girdle moraines, and river 
terraces is very important, because by their aid great men, 
like Professors Geikie and Penck, have worked out the 
theory of the Glacial Periods. 

Professor Penck studied the river Steyr in Upper Austria, 
and found that each of its terraces connected up with the 
girdle moraine of an ancient glacier, and from this the 
following theory of the formation of terraces themselves 
has been evolved. Diagram Fig. 6 has been prepared to 
illustrate this. 

We must bear in mind that before what we now call 
glacial times there had been other cold periods, and earUer 
river systems. Some great climatic changes must have 
been responsible for the extinction of great reptiles like 
the Dinosaurs, who, being large bodied and small brained, 
could not adapt themselves to change. The Ice Ages 



played their part in man's development ; he learned to 
suit himself to new conditions and surroundings. 

Bed A in diagram Fig. 6 would be pre-glacial. In the 
First Glacial Period, at the end of Pliocene times, the 
volume of water in the rivers would not have been large, 
because so much was locked up in the ice of the glaciers. 

Then came the warmer weather of the First Interglacial 
Period, when vast quantities of water were melted out of 
the glaciers, and hurrying down the old river bed, or 
forming another, cut a new channel to B. As the water 
lost its power to cut channels it began to build up the 
bed of gravel at C. 

Then the Second Glacial Period came on, and the river 
again shrank in size. At the Second Interglacial Period 
the bed was cut down to D, and the bed of gravel at E 
built up gradually afterwards. The channel was cut down 
to F in Third Interglacial times, and bed G formed, and the 
final channel H cut in the warmer times after the Fourth 
Glacial Period, which we call post-glacial. An ingenious 
method has been applied to form an estimate of the time 
which has elapsed since the last Ice Age. As the glaciers 
retreated, during each summer mud was melted out of 
them and deposited in the form of clay ; a band each 
year. In Sweden this is called banded clay, and in that 
country Baron de Geer has counted all the bands, and so 
formed an estimate of time. 

To revert to the theory of how the terraces i, 2, and 3 
were formed, we have shown the gravels of which they 
are composed by a dotted surface, and it will be seen that 
they are in reality the edges of old river-beds, which have 
been left behind as the water cut its way down. Our 
readers may think this sounds very ingenious, but demand 
some other proof, that all the terraces were not formed 
in one interglacial period. 

This is supplied by the flint implements of varying 
design, and the fossil remains of animals of widely different 
periods, which have been found in the gravel formations 
of river terraces in many parts of the world. This is the 
period of the River Drift. 

Our drawing (Fig. 6) can be taken as showing the ter- 
races of the Somme at S. Acheul. The Somme is cele- 
brated, because here it Avas, at Abbeville, that M. Boucher 



de Perthes discovered large quantites of flint implements 
in the gravel deposits, in the middle of the nineteenth 
century. As early as the end of the seventeenth century, 
a fine pear-shaped flint implement, which is now in the 
British Museum, had been found near Gray's Inn Lane, 
London. Mr. John Frere discovered others at Hoxne, 
Suffolk, in 1797, and realized that those tools belonged 
" to a very remote period indeed, and to a people who 
had not the use of metals." 

So that just as the fossils led the geologists to the theory 
of the stratification of the rocks and enabled the various 
layers to be dated, the flint implements and fossil remains 
of animals in the terraces suggested the idea that these 
had been formed at different times. The additional fact 
that the terraces of the Somme, Thames, and the Way at 
Farnham, are much ahke in general formation, and that 
in them are found flint implements, which are of the same 
pattern, suggests that people of the same state of civiliza- 
tion once lived on their banks. 

It will perhaps be as well for us now to run through the 
implements found in the terraces of the Somme, because 
it will familiarize our readers with the recognized French 
names for the various divisions of the Old Stone Age, We 
have no corresponding English names, so the French ones 
have been very generally adopted. 

No implements have been found in the upper plateau 
No. 4, which leads us to suppose that man did not live on 
the banks of the Somme before the First Glacial Period. 
In the next terrace downwards, No. 3, Strepyan implements 
are found. We shall explain what these are later ; mean- 
while, how did they get there ? We have imagined a 
mighty river rushing down in flood at the beginning of 
the First Interglacial period, when the tremendous glaciers 
began to shrink and melt away, and this would be quite 
a different matter to the wastage only, which went on 
during glacial times. This flood of water is not an ex- 
aggeration. Remember that we are writing about periods 
which extended over, not hundreds, but thousands of years ; 
as well that we are living in an interglacial period now. 
In September 1920 a warm spell of a few days, accompanied 
by rain after a rather cold summer, caused a serious situa- 
tion at Chamonix in Switzerland. The papers said a 


Fig. 6. — The Formation of River Terraces. 

glacier had " burst." What really happened was that 
the rise in temperature caused the Mont Anvers Glacier 
to melt more rapidly than its accustomed rate of wastage. 
Masses of ice broke away, and were swept with stone and 
mud into the valley. Rivers rose, trees were uprooted, 
and houses carried away. Now think of the whole of the 
north of Europe under an ice-cap, and the Swiss glaciers 
extending as far west as Lyons in France, and the tempera- 
ture gradually becoming warmer. The scientists tell us 
that it only wants a fall of about 5* centigrade below the 
mean annual temperature of Europe to have all the rigour 
of the glacial periods back again, or that a rise of 4* to 5° 
would cause all the Swiss glaciers to disappear. So that 
one week rather warmer than usual in the First Interglacial 
period would have wrought tremendous damage. The 
new river-bed would have been torn out to level B, and 
the first layer of gravel formed by the grinding up of the 
rocks and flints deposited at C. Then perhaps the winter 
came on or dryer weather. The river shrank, and Strepyan 
man came down to the water's edge, he wanted to fish or 
drink ; he may have camped there. In any case he left 
his tools behind and these were made of flint, and some 
are found to-day nearly as sharp and perfect as when he 
used them, neither rolled, nor abraded. The river rose 



again, and bringing down more gravel covered up the tools ; 
sometimes it carried an implement along, and bruising it 
very considerably in so doing deposited it lower down the 

In the second terrace (2) are found a few Strepyan tools 
in the underlying gravels. These may have washed down 
when the bed E was being formed in Second Interglacial 
times, because as the bed C over it was being undermined, 
the Strepyan implements in it may have slid down into 
the new gravels which were being formed under it. On 
these gravels sands were deposited, and in these early 
Chellean implements are found. So man again, during 
all the long years of the Second Interglacial period, lived 
on the water's edge of the Somme, and left his tools behind 
him to be covered up by the gravel deposited in flood times 
when he had to retreat up to the higher terraces. In the 
gravels of this terrace are found remains of E. antiquus, a 
southern type of elephant which preceded the mammoth. 
This shows us that the climate was warm. 

In the gravels of the first terrace are found later 
Chellean implements, and the final gravel bed has not been 
explored because it is frequently submerged. 

It should be noted that disturbances of the level of the 
earth's surface, in relation to the level of the sea, may have 
contributed to the formation of river terraces. For 
instance, well below the bed of the Thames is an old buried 
channel, in which the river ran, where the land was higher. 
Any raising of the land's surface would make the river 
run more rapidly on its way to the sea, and so have 
more power to cut its way down, and form terraces, 
or it may have been that the Ice Age locked up tremendous 
quantities of water, and thus lowered the sea-level. Since 
Neolithic times there has been little change in the earth's 

Fig. 7 shows the terraces of the River Wey at Farnham, 
Surrey, and we include this because it is nearer home than 
the Somme, also nearly all the flint implements illustrated 
in this book have been drawn from specimens found at 
Farnham. The gravel beds are shown by solid blacks. 
At A no implements have been found, so this may have 
been the bed of an enormous river of pre-glacial times 
which extended as the dotted line right across the country 


Fig. 7. — The Farnham Terraces. 

to Hindhead. The next river formation was on the line B, 
and of this there are gravel beds remaining on three ridges, 
valleys between having been cut since to C. D and E 
show rivers which were gradually shrinking to pigmy 

It is quite easy to see that such tremendous rivers could 
not have existed as part of our present river system. 
These old rivers were ambitious pushing fellows wanting 
more elbow-room, and this they had. The Thames at 
London stretched five miles wide between Highbury and 
Clapham. Europe in Pleistocene times had a different 
shape, and was a bigger place than it is now, and raised 
higher above the sea-level. The Atlantic was perhaps 
100 miles more to the west : the Mediterranean consisted 
of two inland seas. 

The Irish Sea, English Channel, and North Sea were 
wide valleys feeding noble rivers. One, which we will call 
the River of the Men of Galley Hill, had for its tributaries 
the Thames, Rhine, and Elbe, and it discharged its waters 
into a northern sea just south of the Faroe Isles. Another, 
which we will call the River of the Men of S. Acheul, had 
for its tributaries the Seine, Somme, and all our southern 
rivers, and flowed westward to the Atlantic through the 
fertile lands of what is now the English Channel. England 
during some parts of the glacial periods was connected 
to Europe by a watershed of dry land where the Straits 
of Dover now are. There was an isthmus across the 
Mediterranean at Gibraltar, and another south of Sicily. 
These trackways are very important because by them the 
Arctic animals could come south when it was cold here, 
and the southern animals come north when it was warm. 
This is the explanation of the hippopotamus in England : 
he did not need to swim, and was not cut out for flying ; 
he walked here. In Aurignacian times the Sahara, till 



then a pleasant grassland, became a desert, and this led 
to the migration of men and animals. 

Before we leave the question of rivers and their terraces, 
we must refer back to Fig. 6. On the upper drawing of 
the river the gravel of the terraces, which is shown dotted, 
is overlain by deposits which are shown by hatched lines. 

These deposits are in the nature of Loess, or loam, 
brick-earth and soil washed down by rain, and have been 
a great puzzle to the geologists. At one time it was 
thought that great lakes were formed during the temperate 
periods between the Ice Ages, and that the deposits were 
made by the settling of the boulder clay which had been 
dissolved in the water; these would be called lacustrine. 
Some such cause must be looked for in the thick deposit 
of brick earth at Caddington, to which we shall refer later, 
but this could not have been the case at S. Acheul on the 
Somme. Here, owing to the investigations of M. Commont, 
it is thought that these deposits on the terraces on the 
top of the gravel are what the scientists call sub-aerial, 
that is, deposited on the surface by the vrind, as opposed 
to sub-aqueous, or under the action of water. The Loess, 
to which constant reference is made by the archaeologists, 
is a greyish-brown sandy and chalky loam deposited by 
wind in the form of dust. This was caused by the action 
of frost during a glacial period. As the ice retreated the 
earth would have been a very barren place. There is 
evidence that at this period there were great winds and 
blizzards, which swept over these deserts and blew the 
dust about. This frequently led to the destruction of 
animal life, and their bones are found now in great quantities 
embedded in the Loess. The position of the Loess lands 
is very important ; beginning at the Ural Mountains they 
stretch across South Russia to the Carpathians and the 
Danube, then by way of the north-west of Austria through 
South Germany into the north of France. The Loess did 
not lend itself to the development of thick forest, so this 
track remained open as a route for prehistoric man 
from east to west. jEolian is the term for a deposit laid 
down by winds ; pluvial for that by rain. On the second 
terrace of the Somme at S. Acheul (p. ii) at its base, 
on the chalk, are found the gravels with the remains 
of E. antiquus, the southern elephant, and rough flint 



hand-axes, or bouchers, of Strepyan times. In the sands 
over the gravel are early Chellean implements, and these 
two layers were deposited by water. Then above this 
we start the sub-aerial deposits. First we have a white 
sandy loam with land shells. Above this is the older 
Loess, or Derm, in three layers, consisting of sands, and 
sandy loams, with gravel at base. Here are found remains 
of the red deer, and in the upper layer implements of the 
Upper Acheulean period. Above these three layers come 
three others of the younger Loess, or Ergeron, each layer 
divided by thin sections of gravel, in which are found 
Mousterian implements. Above this comes brick earth, 
which is weathered Loess, where are found Upper Aurig- 
nacian and Solutrean implements, and in the soil washed 
down on the extreme top there are implements from the 
Neolithic to the Iron Age. (Refer to Chart and check 
the order of these industries.) 

Think how bewildering it must have been to j&nd all 
these evidences of ancient civilization in one and the same 
terrace, because not only were the implements found in 
the lowermost gravels of a later age as one went down 
from terrace 3, 2, and i, but they also were later in each 
terrace as one approached the surface. It is owing to 
the genius of the French archaeologists that we have found 
out all this. 

In England we have had similar problems. At Cadding- 
ton, Bedfordshire, Mr. Worthington G. Smith found an 
actual palaeolithic flint worker's working-place, and how 
he did so is most interestingly told in Man, The Primeval 
Savage. This working-place was buried under brick- 
earth and clay, at a depth from 4 to 13 feet below the 
surface. Here Mr. Smith discovered flint implements of 
Acheulean type, with the anvils and hammer stones which 
had been used in their production, and specimens can be 
seen at the British Museum. These are sharp, and have 
not been rolled. In the 4 to 13 feet thickness of ground 
over these were discovered rougher implements of Chellean 
type which were earlier in date, and were covered with 
scratches or abraded, and had been rolled along. The 
suggestion is that man lived on the lower level, or palaeo- 
lithic floor, on the banks of a lake, in one of the later inter- 
glacial periods, then an Ice Age came on, and he retreated 



to sunnier lands. At the beginning of the next inter- 
glacial period, a slowly moving, half-frozen mass de- 
scended from the higher groimd near Caddington, and 
brought with it these older implements which had been 
left by earlier men still, and deposited these on the top of 
the later ones. 

If you go to Caddington, you can see by the sections 
of ground which are visible in the brickyards, how this 
contorted drift pushed along in a semi-fiuid state and 
then came to rest. Truly, in the Ice Ages the old earth 
was cut and carved, shaped and modelled in a terrific way. 

We may now sum up the problems which have con- 
fronted the archaeologists in their studies. We started 
the chapter with William Smith's work on stratification, 
and this has enabled the scientist to gauge the age of 
sedimentary rocks by measuring the rate of deposit in 
modern formations. On p. 5 how the astronomers help 
by their calculations of alterations of the inclination of the 
earth's axis ; and on p. 8 how the girdle moraines of old 
glaciers and their connection with the river terraces give 
another clue. 

Another method may be instanced. The scientist finds 
that there has been little, if any, difference between the 
appearance of men and women, or the domestic animals, 
of the time of ancient Egypt and our own day. This 
being the case, the Piltdown man (shown p. 21), E. 
antiquus, and the sabre-toothed tiger must be very remote, 
though it must be borne in mind that sudden changes of 
climate would have correspondingly rapid changes of 
men and animals. 

Out of all these facts, the archaeologists have endeavoured 
to form a scale of time by which to measure the age of 
these prehistoric civilizations, and this we have incor- 
porated in our Chart. It should not be taken too much 
to heart, and need not disturb any boy's or girl's Faith ; 
it seems to us a splendid picture ; all these thousands of 
years, and man moving through them alert, resourceful, 
and plucky, and on an upward path ! 


Fig. 8. — Pithecanthropus, the Sub-man of Java. 



WE can now pass to a consideration of the most 
interesting part of our study — Prehistoric man. 
What did he do on the banks of the Somme, the 
Thames, or the Wey ; how did he fend for himself, his 
wife, and children ? Or did he at first look after himself, 
and preach the doctrine of self-help to the family ? Per- 
haps before we endeavour to sum up his doings, it will 
be well to take stock of his scanty belongings. 

Having done this latter, we shall then have to look about 

B 17 


for a model to help us. A painter uses a dummy which 
he calls a lay-figure ; this he dresses up and poses for the 
picture. In the case of prehistoric man, our model 
must be drawn from the savage races of modern times ; 
and remember there are still people who use stone, because 
they cannot work iron, but such types are few and far 
between now, and have lost their old self-reHance and 
interest by contact with civiUzation. Obviously we cannot 
draw any useful comparisons between prehistoric and 
civilized man ; they are poles apart so far as their lives 
are concerned ; but, if we go back a httle to the earher 
voyagers, we can find records of people who were still living 
as simple and primitive a life as the prehistoric men. 

Darwin started on his epoch-making voyage in the 
Beagle on the 27th December 1831. He was not quite 
twenty-three, and was away for nearly five years, during 
which time he went round the world, and saw many native 
races. He wrote his book on The Voyage of the Beagle 
on his return, and if any boy or girl has not read it, it is a 
defect which can be speedily remedied, because there is a 
cheap edition in the " Everyman " series. We shall draw' on 
Darwin, then, for comparisons. Even before his time the 
poor Tasmanians had been banished to an island, and had 
ceased to exist as a nation. They were an exceedingly 
primitive people, and fortunately for us Mr. H. Ling 
Roth's book on the Aborigines of Tasmania contains a 
most graphic and interesting account of all that went to 
make up their everyday life. Messrs. Spencer and Gillen's 
books have been drawn upon for details of the native 
AustraUans. Now for prehistoric man himself. 

We have referred to the archaeologist as a pick and 
shovel historian, because he digs for his knowledge. This 
means he digs for what is left of man. It is rather sad 
that man does not lend himself to the fossilization of his 
remains. He has always been a restless individual. The 
lower animals in kindly fashion seemed to arrange that 
their bodies might sink in the water, settle in the mud, 
and become beautiful fossils. This often came about as 
the result of drought — the poor beasts maddened by thirst 
would dash into the muddy bed of a river, and be too 
exhausted to pull themselves out. That they did so, 
has enabled us to find out about them. Man did not do 


t T 

Fig. 9. — A Theory of Flint Flaking. 

this ; he was too busy or too careful, and died out in the 
open ; just dropped in his tracks, and did not think how 
inconvenient it would be for us — this neglect on his part 
to become a fossil. So his remains are very seldom found. 
We have made a series of drawings of the types of skull 
which are known, and which are being referred to constantly 
by the archaeologists, and which our readers are sure to 
meet if they begin to study seriously. Fig. 8 is of the 
Pithecanthropus erectus, or the first of the sub-men. 



In 1 891 Prof. E. Dubois found the roof of a skull, two molar 
teeth, and a thigh-bone (femur) at Trinil in Java. The 
position is interesting because of its relation to Australia 
and Tasmania. The remains were found in river deposit 
of late Pliocene, or early Pleistocene, character. These were 
found in conjunction with the bones of many of the lower 
animals of the same period ; but there were no implements. 

The brain-pan of Pithecanthropus exceeds that of any 
ape, and equals about two-thirds that of modern man. 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith thinks that its features prove that 
the man belonged to the human family, and enjoyed 
rudimentary powers of speech. Darwin, writing of the 
Fuegians, said: "The language of those people, according 
to our notions, scarcely deserves to be called articulate. 
Captain Cook has compared it to a man clearing his throat, 
but certainly no European ever cleared his throat with 
so many hoarse, guttural, and clicking sounds." The 
thigh-bone of Pithecanthropus shows that he walked 
upright, but the teeth are more simian than human. 
Pithecanthropus was a link between gibbon and man. 
He probably retreated to the trees when he was alarmed, 
and may have contrived rough shelters or nests there, 
but of this, of course, we cannot be sure. The scientists 
went to Java because Europe was deserted by the man- 
Uke apes in early PUocene times, as the temperature 
became colder. A more genial climate than ours was 
necessary for the development of this link, which, with 
brain, added to bone and muscle, was to connect them 
with us. 

It is sad that Prof. Dubois could not find any tools 
or implements associated with Pithecanthropus, because it 
might have helped to clear up the knotty question of the 
Eoliths. These are very primitive flint implements (see 
Fig. 9), which one school of archaeologists say must have 
been made by very primitive men ; the opposing school 
contesting that they have been produced by natural 

Our readers will, we think, agree with us that the early 
flints (as Fig. 18), the human origin of which is unquestioned, 
could not have been produced at once. Thousands of 
years in all probability passed before early man got into 
his dull head the idea of shape. At first he must have 


Fig. io. — Eoanthropus Dawsoni, the Pilidown Man. 

used any stick, stone, or shell that came handy. Probably 
happy accident came to his aid ; he broke a flint and found 
that it had a keen cutting edge. At the identical moment 
that it occurred to him to turn this flint into a rough tool 
by trimming it into shape, he took the first step towards 
civilizing himself. 

When man discovered the use of fire, he had an ally which 
not only cooked his food and warmed his body, but 
would at the same time have sharpened and hardened 
a stick of wood, so that it could be used as a spear. Put 
any piece of wood in a fire and char the end ; when scraped 
it is pointed in shape. 

In Pte-Paltxolithic Man, by Mr. J.Reid Moir, an interesting 
suggestion is put forward as to the development of the flint 
implement. We have made a drawing (Fig. 9) to illustrate 
this. Mr. Moir thinks that primitive man first used a 
split flint as i. Its base would have had a sharp edge 
all round. Perhaps in use this edge got chipped, with 
the result that it became sharper. The flaking may then 



have been developed by man to make a scraper. In 2 
this is done on both sides, with a resulting third edge or 
keel. By flaking all over the face 3 was obtained, and 
this is called the rostro-carinate type, i, 2, and 3 all 
have iiat bases. In 4 the edges of the base have been 
knocked off, and a type is obtained which is like the CheUean 
implements we shall see later. 

Fig. 2 gives a rostro-carinate or eagle's beak flint in 
more detail. 

Our drawing of Pithecanthropus (Fig. 8) has been based 
on the plaster cast at the Natural History Museum at 
South Kensington. Here can be studied the fossil remains 
of man, and there is a fine collection of casts of primitive 
skulls. In drawing from these, it is evident that one may 
obtain an expression of character which may be either 
too brutal or too civilized, but the shape of the skull 
remains, and this determines the poise of the head, and 
many general characteristics of the face. We do not know 
if Pithecanthropus ever lived on the banks of the Somme, 
or Thames, because no human remains of his type have 
been found in England. His cousins may have existed 
nearer the equator in Africa, and their descendants then 
have found their way across the isthmus we referred to 
into Europe. 

Our next illustration (Fig. 10) is of a very celebrated 
person, the Piltdown Man, Eoanihropus Dawsoni, or the 
Man of the Dawn, so named after his finder, Mr. Charles 
Dawson. We should be very proud of Eoanthropus, 
because he is the first known Englishman. In 191 2 men 
were digging for gravel, and came across a skull which 
they broke up and threw away ; a rather brutal thing to 
do, and in this case supremely foolish as well. One piece 
of the skull came into the possession of Mr. Dawson, who, 
recognizing its value, at once made search for the remaining 
portions. Other parts of the skull were found, a lower 
jaw, and later on a canine tooth. Since 191 2 scientific 
men all over the world have written articles, indulged in 
friendly controversy, and found out all sorts of things about 
the Piltdown man. The remains were found in old river, 
or plateau, gravels, at Piltdown in the Sussex weald, the 
age and formation of which is uncertain, but in the gravels' 
are fossil remains of animals dating from late Pliocene, 



Fig. II.— The Pilt- 
down Man's Bone 

and early Pleistocene, times, and as well 
the roughly worked flints called Eoliths ; 
and some later ones, Palaeoliths of an 
early type. Both the fossil remains of 
the late Pliocene and the Eoliths are 
much water-worn and rubbed, as if they 
had been rolled along, whereas the early 
Pleistocene fossils and the early Palaeo- 
liths have sharp edges and are not water- 

From these facts the scientists assume 
that the Pliocene fossil remains and the 
Eoliths are older than the gravel, and 
were brought down by early rivers from 
some other land surface, as at Caddington 
(p. i6), and deposited with the stones 
which form the gravel. It is further 
assumed that the Piltdown man, and 
the Pleistocene fossil remains, and the 
early Palaeoliths may be of the same 
age. Early Pleistocene. Boys and girls 
can judge this for themselves, because 
at the Natural History Museum at South Kensington, 
in the gallery of Fossil Mammals (Table Case i), they 
can see a plaster cast of the skull, and the various fossil 
remains under it. 

If this is so, then the Eoliths have to be accounted for, 
and must have been produced by some ancestor of the 
Piltdown man, who might have resembled the Java sub- 
man ; though unfortunately no earlier human remains 
than the Piltdown man have been found in this country, 
and the Java man forgot to have his implements at hand 
when he started to become a fossil. 

To revert to the skull, the Piltdown man is altogether 
a much more presentable person than his Java ancestor; 
he had a respectable forehead — a better one, indeed, than 
the Mousterian man of Neanderthal type whom we shall 
meet later on. The brain capacity is about 1300 cubic 
centimetres, which is about equal to the smaller human 
brain of to-day ; but with this evident increase in brain 
power, he still retained a very animal lower half to his 
face. The canine tooth is ape-like in shape, and would 



have been used as a weapon for offence or defence. 
The jaws stick out and give the face what is called a 
prognathous character. The skull is extraordinarily thick, 
lo to 12 millimetres, as against 5 to 6 in modern man. 
The Piltdown man could, and probably did, butt a rival 
away, but notwithstanding all this he was on the upward 

The skull is what the scientists call mesaticephalic 
in shape, cephalic index about 78, and, as we shall 
be constantly meeting this and other terms used in 
relation to skulls, we will explain them now. The 
cephahc index is the ratio or percentage of the breadth 
of the head to the length, the latter being taken as 

Skulls with index of 70-75 = Dolichocephalic (long). 

5. ., 75-80 = Mesaticephalic (intermediate). 

>' ». ., 80-85 = Brachycephalic (round). 

For example, assuming a skull has a breadth of 135 milh- 

metres and a length of 180, we get ^^^-^-^ =. cephalic 

index of 75. If our readers have a large pair of calipers, 
they can measure up their friends, and inform them what 
their cephalic index happens to be. 

One detail about the Piltdown man is, that the scientists 
think, by the shape of his brain, that he was right-handed. 
This makes him seem much more intimate. 

As well as the Eoliths and Palaeoliths, Mr. Dawson 
discovered a very extraordinary implement made of the 
thigh-bone of an elephant, and this cannot be later than 
early Pleistocene, because the bone of which it is made 
came from Elephas tneridionalis, or E. antiquus, which 
lived in Europe in late Pliocene or early Pleistocene 
times. There were larger elephants than the Mammoth, 
who comes later, and had need to have been to provide 
thigh-bones of sufficient size to make this implement. 
It is 16 inches long, 4 inches wide, and i to 2 inches thick 
shaped rather Hke the blade of a bat, and not water-worn • 
so like the early PalaeoUths its age must be the same as 
the gravel m which it was found. The use of the imple- 
ment IS unknown. There is a model of it at the Natural 
History Museum, and we give a cut (Fig. 1 1) which has been 


Fig. 12. — Piltdown Man making Flint Implement. 

Fig. 13. — Making Fire. 

drawn from this. It will be noticed that the implement 
appears to have been perforated at one end, so a thong 
may have been attached here, and the implement thrown 
at small game, and then retrieved from the thick under- 
growth by being hauled back, but this sounds a clumsy 
way when stones were at hand. 

Our next drawing (Fig. 1 2) looks rather like a new design 
for the four of spades. This is not the case ; it shows the 
Piltdown man making flint implements. The ones illus- 
trated are about 3^ inches long. The stone held in the 
right hand acted as a hammer, and with this flakes were 
knocked ofE, and shape given to the implement. Flint 
flaking is an art, as can be easily tested by trying to make 
an implement oneself. It is a comparatively easy matter 
to strike off a flake, but a very difiicult one to shape it. 
The actual idea of symmetry marks a great advance, and 
is the beginning of a sense of proportion ; a feeling that 
the implement will not only cut as well as the rough flake, 
but that it would look better, and be more pleasant to 



Fig. 14. — Strepyan 
Boucher or Hand-axe. 

handle, if it were shaped. It is 
this shaping which makes us feel 
that the Eoliths must have been 
made by humans, because we 
cannot believe that they would 
arrive at the stage shown in Fig. 
12 without endless experiment. 

These flints of the Piltdown 
man are presentable looking ob- 
jects ; he has begun to take a 
pride in his work, which, when 
you come to think about it, is the 
most satisfactory emotion that 
boy or man can experience. 

These implements would have 
had all sorts of uses. Flint can 
be made as sharp as a razor, and they served as the 
knives of the day, and were used to cut up a beast, 
scrape a bone, dig up pig-nuts, or shape a stick. Flint 
is extraordinarily hard — until quite recently it was used in 
connection with steel and tinder to produce fire. If a 
piece is struck against steel, minute fragments of the 
latter fly off, heated by the blow to such an extent that 
they burn in the air as sparks. Prehistoric man probably 
obtained his fire in this way, using, instead of steel, 
marcasite, an iron sulphide found in association with flint, 
or he may have done so by friction, rubbing one piece of 
wood up and down in a groove in another piece, until the 
dust ignited (see Fig. 13). 

We will now refer back to our diagram (Fig. 6), and go 
into the detail of the implements which are found on the 
banks of the Somme. In the gravels of terrace No. 3, 
the worked flints are said to be of Strepyan, or Pre-Chellean, 
design. Strepy is a place in Belgium. The implements 
are roughly flaked, and generally have some part of the 
original crust remaining. Fig. 14 shows a rough form of 
boucher, a term invented by Prof. Sollas, in honour of 
M. Boucher de Perthes, who first found worked flints on 
the Somme (p. 9). The French call this a coup de 
poing ; hand-axe is another term. The boucher was held 
in the hand, but, we think, not as a dagger, point down ; 
we say this, because in the collection of our friend, Harold 


Fic. i$.—Afac-/iierodus, the Sabre-toothed Tiger. 

Falkner of Farnham, all the points are intact, and only 
the side edges show signs of wear. We think the butt 
was held in the palm of the hand, with the first finger 
along one edge, to cut with the other. 

Strepyan man also used flints fashioned for scraping 
fat off the skins of the animals he killed, and the bark off 
all the odd pieces of wood that he must have needed. His 
spears would have been of wood. When he lived on the 
banks of the Somme in the First Interglacial period, he 
had as companions two huge elephants, E. meridionalis 
and E. antiquus ; the hippopotamus, rhinoceros, and 
sabre-toothed tiger; and a horse, E. stenonis. The 
naturalists tell us that the teeth of E. antiquus were adapted 
to eating the small branches and foUage of trees. This 
gives an interesting indication of the Strepyan climate. 
It must have been warm and genial for these southern 
animals to have flourished. 

How man fended for himself we cannot tell, armed only 
with a boucher, which he perhaps hafted as a spear; he 
could have but little chance against an elephant, 15 feet 
high to the top of the shoulder. 

If looks are any criterion, the sabre-toothed tiger, 
Machcerodus (Fig. 1 5), must have been an evil beast. There 
is a plaster cast of one at the Natural History Museum. 
Machaerodus was widely distributed and existed in England 
with the cave men who came later on ; this we know 


Fig. i6.— The Pitfall. 

because his teeth have been found in Kent's Cavern and 
Cresswell Caves. Man could only have combated such 
animals by craft ; fire and traps were his weapons, and 
one expects that he was not too proud to eat the remains 
of the tiger's feast. Fig. 1 6 is of a pitfall in use by the 
natives of British East Africa. Labour was plentiful 
in Strepyan days, and everybody lent a hand. To dig 
the pit would not have been beyond the wit of prehistoric 
man, and the stakes could have been sharpened and the 
points hardened by fire. Such a pit would have been a 
beginning of the long battle between brain and mere bulk. 
This would have been one way in which prehistoric 
man obtained the meat that he needed for his food. He 
was, of course, as carnivorous as his foe the tiger. He 



possessed neither flocks, nor herds, and did not grow 
any com. 

Darvrin tells us that "the Gaucho in the Pampas, for 
months together, touches nothing but beef. But they eat, 
I observe, a very large proportion of fat." 

Again, Darwin gives us a splendid picture of how to 
support life, when there is not a butcher's shop just round 
the corner, but you have to catch your supper before 
you can cook it. He was in the Falkland Islands at the 
time. His Gaucho separated a fat cow from a herd of 
wild cattle, and caught it with his lazo. It was then 
ham-strung, and killed by driving a knife " into the head 
of the spinal marrow." These details are given because, 
when you are a prehistoric man, you can't afford to be 
sensitive. A large circular piece of flesh was then cut 
out of the back, with the skin attached ; this was roasted 
on the embers, with the hide downwards and in the form 
of a saucer, so that none of the gravy was lost. 

Though the weather was wet, the Gauchos managed to 
light their fire. First with their flint and steel they get 
a spark on to their piece of charred rag or tinder. Then 
" they sought beneath the tufts of grass and bushes for 
a few dry twigs, and these they rubbed into fibres ; then 
surrounding them with coarser twigs, something like a 
bird's nest, they put the rag with its spark of fire in the 
middle and covered it up. The nest being then held up 
to the wind, by degrees it smoked more and more, and at 
last burst out in flames." 

For fuel the Gauchos " found what, to my surprise, 
made nearly as hot a fire as coals, this was the skeleton 
of a bullock lately killed, from which the flesh had been 
picked by the carrion hawks." 

Darwin enjoyed his supper, and recommended " came 
con c-uero." 

Chellean Man 

The next stage in man's development, which is recog- 
nized by the archaeologists, is that called " Chellean." 
This name comes from Chelles, on the Seine, near Paris. 
There has been considerable controversy as to what 
Chellean man was like. Here in England at Galley Hill, 


Fig. 17.— Galley Hill Man. 

Swanscombe, Kent, a skeleton was found in 1888, which we 
illustrate (Fig. 17), and which Sir Arthur Keith contends 
is that of a Chellean man. The head is of great length, 
but not very high. The skull is very thick, the eyebrow 
ridges not nearly so much developed as in the later Neander- 
thal type. The chin is beginning to be quite modern, 
but the teeth are primitive. It may well be that here in 
England in Chellean times the men were developed who 
in the end became homo sapiens. Chellean implements 
are found at Swanscombe which correspond to those found 
in the sands above the lower gravels of the second terrace 
of the Somme (Fig. 6). Later types are found in the 
first terrace. 

The boucher (Fig. 1 8) has developed since Strepyan times. 
It was still formed by knocking flakes off a flint nodule, 
and remains the most useful tool of prehistoric man ; 
but the Chellean boucher is quite a well-made implement, 



Fig. iJ 

-Chellean Boucher or 

and the man who 
made it was becom- 
ing a good crafts- 
man. His flint work 
was far in advance 
of that of the Tas- 
manians. Some- 
times it has a thick 
butt end, and a 
longer point, while 
others are oval in 
shape, as Fig. 19. 
The earlier the type, 
the thicker the im- 
plement. Fig. 30 
shows a woman 
using a flint scraper, 
one of the most use- 
ful implements of 
prehistoric man. 
The people who know how to make these flints were 
widely distributed. Prof. Sollas says that bouchers are 
found in all the continents of the world, except Australia. 
Many hundreds of flint implements are often found in 
the same gravel pit, and this is thought to prove that 
large numbers of prehistoric people camped together. 
This is doubtful ; food was scarce. It is, of course, always 
difficult to remember that an interglacial period extended 
over thousands of years, so that if a river bank was a 
favourite camping-place, the tools could have been dropped 
year after year, and covered up by gravel and sand 
in times of flood. We dig these to-day, and forget the 
long time which it took for the gravel to be deposited. 
Another point to be borne in mind is that, so far, all the 
remains of prehistoric man that we have noted have been 
found ne^r water. The men of the river drift had to 
camp by the side of a river, or lake, because they had not 
any pots or pans in which to store water. Thousands of 
years passed before man made pottery. 

Another point to remember is, the one which was 
pointed out to the nineteenth-century geologists, in regard 
to the same sort of fossils found in the rocks in different 





Fig. 19. — Oval Implement. 

parts of the world : 
these were not all 
living organisms at 
the same time. Life 
proceeds from a 
centre and spreads. 
So this widely dis- 
tributed Chellean 
civilization did 
not start all over 
the world at one 
given minute. 
If it started in 
India, or Africa, 
it took time for 
it to reach the 
Wey, by the isth- 
mus across the 
Straits of Dover. 
Prehistoric man 
was a great traveller, and that by the most urgent 
necessity of all : the need to find food. Darwin 
mentions two Spanish girls taken captive by Indians. 
" From their account they must have come from 
Salta, a distance in a straight line of nearly 1000 miles. 
This gives one a grand idea of the immense territory 
over which the Indians roam." So it was with pre- 
historic man. Remember he started as a hunter, then 
developed into a herdsman, then became a farmer, and 
settled down to guard his possessions. Remember as 
well that we call the industry Chellean, not because it 
originated at Chelles, but by reason of the wonderful way 
the French archaeologists have explored the remains of 
prehistoric man ; they have done this so well that we 
have adopted their names for want of better ones of our 
own. England must have been an outpost of Chellean 

Chellean man had to encounter much the same sort of 
animals as those of Strepyan times. The huge Elephas 
antiquus remained as a problem for the hunters to tackle. 
They probably employed the pitfall to trap animals ; the 
Australians still catch emus in this way, or they may have 
c 33 

Fig. 20. — Chellean Scraper. 

been the inventors of another device which is still employed 
by native races. This consists of a large and heavy piece 
of wood, which is suspended above a path, pointing down- 
wards, by a grass rope. Fig. 21 shows how the animal, 
pushing its way along, cracks the rope, with the result 
that the spear falls on to the spinal column. 

We may turn to Darwin to gain information as to the 
appearance of savage races. Writing of the Fuegians he 



said: "Their only garment 
consists of a mantle made 
of quanaco skin, with the 
wool outside ; this they 
wear just thrown over their 
shoulders." But the skin 
cloak appears to have been 
a party frock, and not for 
general use. Darwin saw 
them in their canoes ; the 
sleet falling, and thawing 
on their naked bodies. He 
refers to the Fuegian wig- 
wam which " resembles, in 
size and dimensions, a hay- 
cock. It merely consists 
of a few broken branches 
stuck in the ground, and 
very imperfectly thatched 
on one side with a few 
tufts of grass and rushes. 
... At Goeree Roads I 
saw a place where one of 
these naked men had slept, 
which absolutely offered no 
more cover than the form 
of a hare." 

Fig. 21.— Falling Spear. 

The Tasmanians made much the same form of shelter, 
using bark instead of grass and rushes, and we have shown 
the type in Fig. 22. Treat the drawing with respect, 
because it shows house No. i. They also went about 
quite naked, using occasionally a fur cloak. Both the 
Fuegians and the Tasmanians liberally anointed their 
bodies and heads with grease mixed with the ochreous 
earths. In this way they gained a certain protection 
from the weather, and it helped to keep them clean. 
Earth is a fine deodorizer. There is a good tale told of a 
party of Tasmanians given some soup, on the top of which 
floated fat ; this they scooped ofi with their hands, and put 
on their heads, but they did not drink the soup. Primitive 
man almost invariably roasts or bakes his meat. 

Later on we give instances of human remains being 


Fig. 22. — A Break-wind. 

found, buried with red ochre, for use in the spirit world. 
This points to the covering of grease and ochre, having 
developed from a protection into a decoration of the body. 

Darwin wrote of the Fuegians : "The old man had a 
fillet of white feathers tied round his head, which partly 
confined his black, coarse, and entangled hair. His face 
was crossed by two broad transverse bars ; one painted 
bright red, reached from ear to ear and included the upper 
lip ; the other, white like chalk, extended above and 
parallel to the first, so that even his eyelids were thus 

We have just referred to skeletons being found with 
colour for decorating the body, and implements for use 
in the spirit world, and such burials point to a belief in a 
future life. But we can find no traces as yet of such a 
belief on the part of the Chellean man. Captain FitzRoy 
of the Beagle could never ascertain that the Fuegians 
had any distinct belief in a future life. When driven by 
extreme hunger they killed and ate the old women, before 
their dogs, because, as they said, " Doggies catch otters, 
old women no." In the Uganda, before a human sacrifice, 
the victim was made to drink from a magic cup to destroy 
his soul first. A horrible idea, but yet proving that even 



the most degraded 
types as a rule be- 
lieve in a future 

As to what the 
Chelleans believed, 
we cannot say. 


Fk;. 2- 

, — An Acheulcan Boucher 
or Hand-axe. 

We can now turn 
to Acheulean types 
of implements. Here 
we still have the 
boucher (Fig. 23), 
but it is a much 
better one ; thinner 
and more finely 
flaked, with a truer 
edge. Scrapers were 
used as well, but Acheulean man does not seem to 
have had many more sorts of implements than his 
Chellean ancestor. It must be borne in mind that 
these names are terms used to denote certain stages in the 
development of flint implements. In reality the design 
of these was a continued growth, and prehistoric man 
did not, in any one year, leave off making Chellean types 
and introduce a new Acheulean fashion. 

In the description of the sub-aerial deposits on the 
terraces of the Somme (p. 14), we noted that the earliest 
Acheulean types are found in the sands and gravels at the 
base of the lower Derm, and the later types in the lowest 
strata of the older Loess. This older Loess is in three 
layers, and in the middle and upper layers no implements 
are found. It is supposed to have been deposited in 
glacial times, so it seems as if the weather gradually 
became too cold for man to camp by the riverside. This 
view is borne out by the remains of the animals found and 
in the implements. In the sand and gravel of the earlier 
Acheulean times, we have our old friend E. antiquus and 
the red deer, both southern animals ; but in the later 


Fig. 2^.—Elephas fniiu'geniiis, the Mammoth. 

Acheulean of the lowest layer of the older Loess, we 
meet for the first time, E. primigenius (the mammoth). 
Rhinoceros tichorhinus (the woolly-coated one), horse, and 
lion. These were northern animals who came south as 
the weather became colder and the Fourth Glacial period 
drew on. 

The mammoth was not so large as E. antiquus, and 
closely resembled the existing Indian elephant, excepting 
only the tusks, which are very long and curved. Its teeth 
were more adapted for eating coarse grasses than the 
foliage of trees. The country was becoming barer 
and bleaker, and trees were scarce. Its curved tusks 
perhaps acted as hay-rakes, and helped to gather up 
food. Its warm coat and thick skin, with a layer of fat 
under, protected it from the cold weather. We know all 
about the mammoth, because whole carcases have been 
dug up in the frozen Arctic regions, with the flesh, skin, 
and furry coats, protected through the ages by the ice 
and snow in which they were embedded. Our sketch 
(Fig. 24) gives a general idea of this animal, and Fig. 25 
shows the woolly-coated rhinoceros. 

If reference is made to the Chart, it will be seen that 
during Acheulean times the weather was getting colder, 
and as the ice-cap crept down, so these animals from the 
northern regions retreated before it. Man appears for 
the same reason to have looked about for warmer shelter 


Fig. 25. — Rhinoceros tichoihinus, the Woolly-coated Rhinoceros. 

than the open-air camps, and to have retreated to the 
caves and caverns. 

Before we pass on to the Cave-dwellers, let us sum up 
what we have found out about prehistoric man, and 
draw some comparisons. We say that he was a nomad 
and a hunter, but unless we are careful to think a little, 
the mental picture we form is of some one rather like 
ourselves ; a little rougher perhaps, and more whiskery, 
but with a background of solid comfort somewhere. We 
shall be right in imagining the Chellean a man like ourselves, 
with an active brain, but comfort as we understand it 
did not exist for him. 

We do not realize that prehistoric man was a nomad, 
or wanderer, because he had to hunt for his food ; that 
unless he hunted he starved. It is really extremely difl&cult 
to imagine a state of affairs when a man's sole possessions 
consisted of a flint boucher for tool ; a wooden spear for 
a weapon, and a skin for covering ; when all else had to 
be searched for ; when pots and pans did not exist ; 
when pottery and weaving had not been invented. Yet 
such people have existed until comparatively recent times. 
Tasmania was discovered in 1642, by Abel Janszoon 
Tasman, who named it Van Diemen's Land, after Anthony 
Van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies. 


"'•"' z^ 

Fig. 26. — Tasmanian Spear. 

In an amusing way it has been renamed after its dis- 
coverer. After his time Tasmania was visited by other 
voyagers, Captain Cook being one in 1777, and they found 
the Tasmanians to be to all intents and purposes a pre- 
historic people. It seems as if, in remote ages, when 
Asia, like Europe, had a different coastline, the Tasmanians 
had come from the mainland into AustraHa and, retreating 
again before stronger races, found their way in the end 
into Tasmania, before it was so much cut off as it is now. 
There may have been an isthmus across Bass Strait, as 
there was in Europe across the Straits of Dover. At 
some later period this disappeared, and the Tasmanians 
were left free to remain the simple primitive folk they 
were when first discovered. 

They had not the use of iron, and their only tools were 
made of flint, and very rough ones at that. They had 
not any " boucher " which was as good a piece of work as 
that of Chellean man (Fig. 19). Generally the Tasmanians 
went about quite naked, but on occasions wore a skin 
cloak. Kangaroo skins were dressed as rugs to sit upon. 
Wet and cold did not appear to harm them, and their 
houses, as Fig. 22, were the merest break-winds. When in 
1 83 1 the miserable remainder of the natives were exiled 
to Flinders Island, and lodged in huts, it was found that 
they caught cold far more readily than when living in 
the open. Like the Fuegians in their native state, they 
greased their bodies, and anointed themselves with red 
ochre ; this gave a certain protection. They were also 
fond of making necklaces of shells, and ornamented their 
bodies by forming patterns of scars (cicatrization) left by 
cuts made with a sharp flint. They were nomads moving 
about the country in search of food ; this meant that in 
hard times the very old and infirm people were left to die, 
and sometimes the babies had to be sacrificed. 

In hunting game like kangaroo they used plain spears, 
as Fig. 26, made of a hard wood. This is not quite the 



simple thing it seems. Pithecanthropus would have 
picked up any long stick to hit with, and it may have 
slipped from his hand. He then discovered that unless 
one end was heavier than the other, it did not follow a 
very straight line of flight ; it might knock down a bird, 
but would not pierce with its point the skin of an animal, 
so through the long ages the Tasmanian spear developed. 
This was cut, trimmed, and scraped with flint. Straight- 
ened by being passed over a fire, the teeth were used instead 
of the later shaft-straightener (Fig. 46). The end was 
charred by fire, and so hardened, and then pointed by 
scraping. The point was at the heavy end ; 20 inches from 
this the circumference was 3 inches, in the middle 2^ inches, 
and 2 inches from the end only ^ inch. The total length 
was 1 1 feet 1 1 inches. The Tasmanian could throw this, 
and kill an animal at from 40 to 50 yards, and did not use 
a throwing-stick, as Fig. 34. Unhke the Australians they 
used neither boomerangs nor shields. Their other weapon 
was the waddy, or wooden club, about 2 feet 6 inches long, 
and they threw stones with great accuracy. 

The Tasmanian wooden spear had its counterpart in 
England in the Old Stone Age. In a very interesting book 
just published, written by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, and 
called Man and his Past, is an illustration of what is 
probably the only known palaeolithic wooden object. It is 
apparently the broken head of a wooden spear about 
15 inches long, pointed at one end, and about i^ inch 
diameter at the other. It looks exactly as if the end had 
been broken off the Tasmanian spear (Fig. 26), and was 
found at Clacton in Essex, in the E. antiquus bed in 
association with an early type of flint implement. 

It may well be, that here in England, Chellean man 
hunted and killed smaller game than this southern ele- 
phant ; to have attacked E. antiquus with such a spear 
would have been to add so trifling an injury to such a 
tremendous insult, that the huge beast would have turned 
on the hunter with disastrous results ; probably the pitfall 
was the method adopted (p. 29). 

We think the illustration in Mr. Crawford's book is 
the first which has appeared of this Clacton spear. The 
book itself consists of a series of brilliant essays on the 
whole Art of Archaeology, and should be read by any boy, 



or girl, who wishes to acquire the proper atmosphere for 
more detailed study. 

The Tasmanians were wonderful trackers, with very 
acute sight, hearing, and smell. 

They ate the animals and birds they caught. Without 
any preliminaries these were thrown on to a wood fire 
which singed the hair and feathers and half-cooked the 
carcase. Then the bodies were cut apart with a flint and 
gutted, and the cooking finished off by spitting the joints 
on sticks, and toasting over the fire. A little wood ash 
served instead of salt. The meat was always roast, 
because there were not any pots to boil in. 

The Tasmanians ate sliell-fish as well, and these the 
women caught by diving into the sea and searching the 
rocks under water. They had not any nets, hooks, or lines. 
The women were not treated very well, and had to do 
all the other work while the men hunted. They sat 
behind their lords at meals, who, reclining on one arm 
in Roman fashion, passed the tougher morsels to their 
dutiful spouses. 

The Tasmanians had one notable possession in their 
raft. This was not hollow like a boat, but made of 
cigar-shaped rolls of very light bark like cork. One large 
central roll had two smaller ones lashed to it with grass 
rope to prevent rolling ; see section on Fig. 27. So that 
it was a raft in canoe shape. With these, or in them, 
they crossed from headland to headland, and the type 
may have been a survival of the earlier boats by which 
their ancestors found their way down from the mainland, 
and bridged the gaps between the islands, if the isthmus 
we referred to on p. 40 did not exist. 

This raft is of great interest, because at some time or 
other it must have been a notable development. Pithe- 
canthropus, if he ever went boating, did so on any floating 
log, and discovered to his disgust that it needed pointing, 
if it was to be paddled along, and also that some sort 
of arrangement was necessary to prevent it rolling over 
in the water, and giving him an involuntary bath. The 
beginning came in some such way. One development 
was the dug-out, and certain prehistoric men, with fire 
and flint, shaped and hollowed their log in this way. 

The Tasmanian was another and very much readier 


method. The rafts were used for fishing, and carried 
three to four men comfortably ; the spear, which was their 
only fishing implement, served as well for a paddle. A 
clay floor was made at one end, and here a fire was 

It is difficult for us to realize, with matches at hand, 
what a precious possession fire was to any primitive people. 
To obtain it they had to follow the method Darwin saw 
practised by the Tahitians. " A light was procured by 
rubbing a blunt-pointed stick in a groove made in another, 
as if with the intention of deepening it, until by friction 
the dust became ignited" (Fig. 13). It must have 
been a difficult business, depending on a supply of dry 
moss, or fibrous bark, which could be lighted from the 
dust set on fire by friction. The Tasmanian then carried 
his fire about with him in the form of decayed touchwood, 
which would smoulder for hours, and could then be blown 
into flame. 

They made grass rope and string, by twisting long wiry 
grass or fibrous bark, as Fig. 28. This illustration is of 
great interest, in that it leads up to the development of 
the spinning spindle shown in Fig. 40. Primitive man, 
of course, used sinews and hide thongs for ties. They also 
made clumsy reed baskets, and at the British Museum 
is a water-carrying vessel, made by skewering up the 
corners of the leaf of a large seaweed kelp. It looks rather 
like a mob-cap. With a grass rope they climbed high trees. 
They passed the rope round themselves and the tree ; 
cut holes in the bark for their big toes, first on one side, 
and then the other, and as they went up, jerked the rope 
and themselves up the tree together. 

It is not known if they had any idea of trade or barter, 
but they did not grow any crops, or possess any domesti- 
cated animals. They were -wdthout any overlords, laws, 
or regular government. 

If they ailed, an incision was made in the body, to 
let the pain escape. The dead were sometimes burned, 
and sometimes placed in hollow trees. After burning, 
the remains might be buried, but the skull retained and 
worn as a memento, or at other times this was buried 
separately. They believed in a life after death on a 
pleasant island with their ancestors. 



We will finish off this account of the Tasmanians, by an 
amusing description of one of the ways they had of settling 
their quarrels: "The parties approach one another face 
to face, and folding their arms across their breasts, shake 
their heads (which occasionally come in contact) in each 
other's faces, uttering at the same time the most vociferous 
and angry expressions, until one or the other is ex- 
hausted, or his feelings of anger subside." An extremely 
sensible method, and amusing for the onlookers, which 
is more than can be said of civilized methods of 

It is not very creditable to the civilized white races, 
that the Tasmanians should have been used so badly 
that they have now become extinct. Truganini the last 
survivor died in 1877, and, we hope, found the dream of 
the pleasant island and the kindly ancestors come true. 
A nation can die of a broken heart, even as individuals ; 
or shall we say, they lose heart. Think of a people who 
have supported life with no other aid than spears, waddies, 
and chipped flints, then other people come in ships, with 
a wonderful apparatus for living, which makes the sticks 
and stones seem foolish a,nd inadequate. Thus the old 
people lose interest, and heart, and the desire to go on 
living, or become hangers-on, and so come to an end. 
All of which is very sad. 

We have written enough to prove that Chellean and 
Acheulean men, in their flint bouchers, possessed tools 
with which they could make the spears that they needed 
to kill game for food ; their mode of living must have 
been very similar to the Tasmanians. Shall we now try 
to conjure up a picture of a tribe here in England in 
Chellean and Acheulean times, and find out if we ca.n 
how they supported life ? 

The tribe was like a large family in those days; There 
might have been a headman, who would have been the 
boldest of the hunters, but little if any system of govern- 
ment. The women did all the work, and looked after the 
children, and meant more to them than the father, whose 
place was with the hunters. So much was this the case 
that the custom grew up in savage races of tracing descent 
on the mother's side. 

The tribe would not have been particularly quarrelsome, 





unless their neighbours trespassed on their hunting-grounds. 
War is a civiUzed institution, based as a rule on the desire 
to obtain some other nation's property. Prehistoric man 
had little temptation in this way. Our tribe may have 
camped on the banks of the Wey for the summer. The 
river was a much bigger one than it is now, and one hopes 
they found the fishing good. In any case they would 
only have had the wooden spear to lance the fish with, 
and a flint boucher to cut it up afterwards. There would 
have been berries to eat, the roots of bracken and ferns, 
and nuts in the autumn, crab apples, wild cherries, 
and sloes. The bee had to give up his store to greedy 
hands that tore the comb, and crunched it up without 
waiting to run out the honey. There were snails and shell- 
fish, grubs and beetles, and luscious caterpillars. 

Greatest joy of all a dead elephant, or hippo, or perhaps 
a rhinoceros, then would the tribe have sat down, and 
eaten their way through the carcase ; if it happened to 
be a little bit high, we need not sniff, because we still like 
pheasant in the same condition. 

But rough plenty would not last ; hard times and winter 
would come on, and the tribe range far and wide in search 
of food. They would grow lean-ribbed as wolves, and just 
as savage. They would be driven by hunger to attack 
living game, and in the fight some would die that the 
others might live. The survivors at the meal would not 
have presented a pleasant spectacle ; they would have 
torn the beast to pieces, and eaten it raw. 

It must have been a hard life, yet the Call of the Wild 
still takes the big-game hunter to Africa, and the explorer 
to Polar Regions. The sick and ailing went to the wall, 
because little could be done for them. If a tooth ached, 
it continued to do so, until it stopped of its own accord. 
Chellean man did not practise dentistry. Notwithstanding 
all this, he was not a degraded savage, because this means 
a falling from high estate. He possessed the soul which 
makes man the restless individual that he still is. Just 
as the inventor of to-day has conquered the air, and seeks 
to harness- all the powers of nature, so Chellean man 
experimented with his chipped flints, and found out the 
way to support life. There were doubtless good, bad, and 
indifferent men, as there are now ; some who push the 



world along, and others who retard its progress, but 
whether he hated, loved, hunted, or fought, our ancestor 
was fighting our battles as well as his own, and through 
all the thousands of years slowly struggling on an upward 

Fig. 28. — Making Grass Rope. 

Note. — In the Umited space of this chapter, we have 
not been able to write much as to the actual manufacture 
of flint implements, or show the infinite variety of their 
shapes. At the British Museum, in the Prehistoric Room, 
in one of the table cases, there is a series of flints arranged 
to explain their manufacture, and in the cases of the 
Gallery over, a collection of magnificent specimens. If 
readers are interested, they should pay a visit to Blooms- 
bury, or the County Museums which have collections. A 
sight of the actual implements will make our pages more 




OUR next period is that of the Cave-dwellers, or 
Mousterians, so called after the cave of Le Moustier. 
in the valley of the Vezere, Dordogne (Fig. 29). 
Here again we are indebted to the French archaeologists, 
who have examined the prehistoric remains so carefully 
that we have had to adopt their names. At Le Moustier 
the river has in course of time cut its way down through 
the limestone, which is left in cliff formation at the sides. 
Tn the cliffs, caverns were formed by surface water finding 
its way down from the top and wearing away pockets of 
softer stone, or by the river cutting out holes in the banks. 
This left the caves ready for the occupation of man, and, 
as the weather became colder, he looked about and found 
ready-made houses, a thing we should like to do to-day. 
When prehistoric man first inhabited these, they were just 
above the flood-level of the river ; to-day they are often 
high up on the banks, because the river has continued 
to cut out its bed. All along the Vezere are caves, which 
are known all the world over by archaeologists, and later 
on we shall hear of La Madeleine, La Micoque, Cro-Magnon, 
and others. 

We will start by considering Mousterian man. In 1907 
a skeleton was discovered in a cave on the banks of the 
Sourdoire, a tributary of the Dordogne, in the district of 
La Chapelle aux Saints. Let us at once point out that 
this is the first time we have found any evidenc?*^ of people 
burying their dead in a place of sepulchre. The Piltdown 
man, and his cousin of Java, the man of Heidelberg, just 
dropped in their tracks, were brought down by the river 
currents, settled into the mud, and were covered up by 
D 49 

Fig. 30. — Neanderthaler or Mousterian. 

gravel. In the case of the man of La Chapelle aux Saints, 
it is evident that he had been buried with care and 
perhaps love. Flint implements were laid ready to his 
hand for use in the hunting-grounds of the spirit world, 
and food for his sustenance. Think of the difference this 
means in the mental outlook of the relatives, and regard 
it as a notable step up the ladder of civilization. A 
similar discovery was also made at Le Moustier in 1908. 

These discoveries were very important, because they 
enabled the archaeologists to be quite sure of their facts 
in respect to other skeletons which had been found. In 
1857 a specimen was discovered in a limestone cave at 
Neanderthal, near Diisseldorf, Germany; unfortunately, 
as in the case of the Piltdown man, the workmen who 
found it, not realising its value, broke up the skeleton. 
Remember the Java man was not discovered unti, 1891, 
and the Piltdown man in 191 2, so the scientists were not 



prepared for the Neanderthaler in 
'57. Some said the latter individual 
must have suffered from " something 
on the brain," to have had such an 
extraordinary shape to his head, but 
Huxley the great Englishman and 
others recognized the skull as human. 
From time to time various other skulls 
were found, until that of La Chapclle 
aux Saints confirmed the opinion 
that all belonged to one race, which 
is called the Neanderthal or Moiister- 
ian (Homo N eanderthalensis). 

Our drawing (Fig. 30) shows what 
these men looked like, and has been 
made from the casts of the skulls of 
the Neanderthal and La Chapelle aux 
Saints men at the Natural History 
Museum. The most noticeable char- 
acteristic of the Mousterian skull is 
the one very prominent ridge going 
right across the brows. The frontal 
bones are very thick, and there is 
not much chin to the lower jaw. 
The head is large in proportion to the height, and the 
shin and thigh bones suggest that the man stood with 
knees bent forward a little (sec Fig. 31). The arm, again, 
is longer than that of modern man. It should be noticed 
that the head is placed on the shoulders in quite a different 
way to ours. If any of our readers stand with bent knees, 
they will find that the head and shoulders swing forward. 
Mousterian man must have loped along, head to ground 
like a hunting animal, and would have found it difficult 
to look up (Fig. 32). 

Mousterian man was widely distributed, and though he 
seems to have been the first to use the cave, he did not 
entirely desert the camping-places of his ancestors on the 
river banks. He is supposed to have lived at the end of 
the Fourth Glacial period, so perhaps, as the weather 
gradually became warmer, he spent some of his summers 
on the Somme. Here M, Commont has identified his 
implements in the Ergeron, or younger Loess, which, as we 


Fig. 31. — Poise of the 
Mousterian Figure. 




have seen (p. 14), was deposited by wind 
on the terraces. 

The boucher disappeared soon after 
the beginning of the Mousterian period ; 
this in Acheulean times was made by 
knocking flakes off a nodule of flint. 
The flakes were used for making small 
scrapers and the like. Mousterian man 
appears to have dressed one side of 
his implement first on the nodule, and 
then to have detached it as a large flake. 
This, again, is an interesting fact, and 
shows that man was beginning to econo- 
mize in the use of material. The weather 
too was becoming colder, and the hills 
would have been covered with snow. 
Flint is only found in chalk of the 
cretaceous beds. In many parts of the 
country it has all been cut away by the 
action of water, and the flints taken 
with it to form gravel in the river 
terraces lower down. Flint suitable 
for making implements must have been 
valuable to prehistoric man, and a stray 
flint from the surface is not so good for 
flaking as one quarried out of chalk. So for some it meant 
a long journey, and encounters with woolly rhinoceros en 
route, to obtain the raw material for his industry, then 
perhaps the bartering of skins in exchange for the flints, 
and a toilsome carrying home of the heavy stones. Perhaps 
it occurred to Mousterian man that if instead of wasting a 
whole large flint to make one boucher, he used the flakes, 
he could make several implements out of one nodule. 
This is what he did, and it marks one more step up the 

We call these Levallois flakes. Sharp-pointed flints are 
also found notched on one side, evidently for use as lance- 
beads (Fig. 33). 

Spherical balls of limestone have been found, and it is 
thought that these may have been used as bolas. Darwin 
describes the bolas used by the Gauchos of Monte Video. 
South America. "The bolas, or balls, are of two kinds. 


Fig. 33. — Mouster- 
ian Spear-head. 


The simplest, which is chiefly used for catching ostriches, 
consists of two round stones covered with leather, and 
united by a thin plaited thong about 8 feet long ; the 
other kind differs only in having three balls united by thongs 
to a common centre. The Gaucho holds the smallest of 
the three in his hand, and whirls the other two round 
and round his head ; then, taking aim, sends them like 
chain shot revolving through the air. The balls no sooner 
strike any object than, winding round it, they cross each 
other and become firmly hitched." The Gaucho lives on 
horseback, but the Eskimo goes on foot, and he uses a 
bolas with seven or eight cords, and attached stones, and 
this he uses to bring down birds on the wing. The stones 
are formed by being knocked together till they become 

The Reindeer and Musk Ox were newcomers from the 
north in Mousterian times, and were hunted by pre- 
historic man for his food ; but we do not find anything 
that would lead us to suppose that he had as yet domesti- 
cated animals. 

There is one very black mark against the Mousterians, 
and that is evidence, which is supposed to point to 
cannibalism, contained in deposits in the Rock Shelter of 
Krapina, in Croatia. Here were found human bones which 
had been broken, as if to extract the marrow, and burnt 
by fire. We shall find on p. 6i that the Australian 
aborigines, while not being habitual cannibals, yet practised 
this dreadful art, as a ceremonial way of disposing of the 
dead bodies of their relatives. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that, though we know 
a little more about the Mousterians than about Chellean 
and Acheulean man, it does not amount to very much. 
We must then search for some primitive people living under 
similar conditions, and at about the same stage of civiliza- 
tion as the Mousterians, and see if we can draw useful 
comparisons. The aborigines of Australia are such a 
people. Of them Messrs. Spencer and Gillen have written 
that they " have no idea of permanent abodes, no clothing, 
no knowledge of any implements save those fashioned out 
of wood, bone, and stone, no idea whatever of the cultiva- 
tion of crops, or of the laying in of a supply of food to tide 
over hard times, no word for any number beyond three, 


Fig. 34. — Australian Spear-throwing. 

and no belief in anything like a supreme being." They 
have not been treated quite so brutally as the Tasmanians 
were, and are still allowed to exist on sufferance, and 
end their days as a race on the unfertile lands. In the 
beginning, it seems as if they followed the Tasmanians 
into Australia from the mainland, and settled there, 
driving some of the latter people into Tasmania and mixing 
with them to some extent. 

The scientists divide mankind into three groups : the 
Cymotrichi, with wavy hair like ourselves, and the 
Australians come into this group ; the Lissotrichi, whose 
hair is perfectly straight, like that of the Eskimo ; the 
Ulotrichi, whose hair is very twisted, as in the case of 
the Negroes, Bushmen, and Tasmanians. Their spear 
shows a considerable development on that oi the 
Tasmanians, and resembles the Mousterian type About 
10 feet long, some have hardwood points on to which 
barbs were spliced. Others a flint point, as Fig. S3- 
The Australians use a spear-thrower. This has many 
forms, but the essential feature is a stick about a 
yard long, with a handle at one end, and a peg at the 
other. Figs. 34 and 35 show the spear-thrower in use. 
First the end of the spear is fitted on to the peg of the 
thrower. This is held in the right hand well behind the 



body, the left hand balancing the spear. It is then thrown 
up and forward, the thrower imparting an additional 
impulse as the spear leaves the hand. Darwin when in 
Australia saw the natives at practice. He wrote: "A cap 
being fixed at thirty yards distance, they transfixed it 
with a spear, delivered by the throwing-stick with the 
rapidity of an arrow from the bow of a practised archer.'' 

This short range means that the Austrahan must be an 
expert hunter and tracker, if he is to approach within 
striking distance of his quarry, the kangaroo. Mousterian 
spear- throwers have not been discovered in Europe as 
yet, but we can safely assume that the shorter type, as 
Fig. ^-j, which is a harpoon-thrower, was not arrived at 
without many simpler forms going before. The Australian 
uses a wooden shield, which is a development on the 
Tasmanian equipment. Very much narrower than those 
of mediaeval times, it is a long oval in shape, varying from 
2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches in length, by 6 to 12 inches in width. 
Rounded on the outside, the inside of the shield is hollowed 
out so as to leave a vertical handle. When one thinks 
that this is all cut out of the solid with a flint, it becomes 
a notable piece of work. The shield points to quarrels 
and fighting, because its only purpose can be to protect 
the user against spear thrusts. We do not know if the 
Mousterian used shields. 

Before we forget it, let us say that our readers should 
pay a visit to the Ethnographical Gallery at the British 
Museum, and see there a spear-head made by the Australians, 
in recent times, from broken bottle glass ; it is an astonish- 
ing production, and the man who made it a great crafts- 
man. A visit should be paid to the British Room where 
there are Mousterian types, and so comparisons can be 

The Australians make very useful knives out of long 
dagger-shaped flakes of stone, and by daubing resin at 
one end form rounded handles. They mount sharp flakes 
in the ends of sticks with resin, and these are used as 
chisels and adzes. There are stone picks inserted like the 
spear-heads in cleft sticks, only at right angles ; these were 
secured with tendons and resin. Stone axes are made, 
and these are hafted in a withy handle, made supple by 
heat, and then bent around the axe, and fastened with 


Fig. 35. — Australian Spear-throwing. 

tendons and resin. This suggests that the flaked stone 
found by Mr. Falkner at Churt, near Farnham, Surrey 
(Fig. 36), may have been mounted in much the same way. 
The Austrahan implements should be seen at the British 
Museum. Some of their work is ground and polished, 
and here in Europe we associate this with the next period, 
the Neolithic. Their methods of hafting are of great interest, 
and prehistoric people must also have used some such 
way to protect their hands from the razor-like edges of 
the flints. Like the Tasmanians, the Australians walk 
abroad without any clothes, but wear skin cloaks in their 
huts; they stitch these together "with sinew, and use bone 
awls and pins for piercing the skins. Necldaces and fore- 
head bands of shells and teeth are worn, and they make 
themselves beautiful by pushing a short stick, called a 
nose-pin, through the thin membrane which divides the 
nostrils. Their bodies are anointed with grease and red 
ochre. They also sacrifice joints of their little fingers, 
as we shall find the Aurignacians did in Europe. Their 
huts are very simple, and serve for the camp of a day 
or so, which makes a break in their wanderings. Fig. 2)7 
shows such a type, which may have been used by Mousterian 



Fig. 36. — Hafting. 

man in the summer when 
he left his cave. It repre- 
sents the next development 
that we should expect from 
the Tasmanian's break-wind 
(Fig. 22). It is, in fact, like 
two break- winds leaning to- 
gether, and was made of 
any rough branches that 
came to hand. 

The Australians have an- 
other method of hghting 
fires by friction : one stick 
is held in the hands and 
rotated in a hole in another, 
until the wood dust is ignited 
(Fig. 38). Darwin gives 
an improvement on this 
method : " the Gaucho in the Pampas . . . taking an elastic 
stick about 18 inches long, presses one end on his breast, and 
the other pointed end into a hole in a piece of wood, then 
rapidly turns the cur^^ed part like a carpenter's centre-bit." 
Another interesting development is the bark canoe of 
the Australians, as Fig. 39. The lines of this are much 
the same as that of the Tasmanians (Fig. 27), but the 
construction is that of a real boat, not a raft. A long 
strip of bark is stripped from the gum tree with a stone 
axe and warmed over a fire to make it supple. Curved 
saplings, bent as ribs, give the shape, and a stretcher goes 
across the tops of these, and the boat is prevented 
from spreading by grass rope ties from side to side. The 
prow and stern are tied up \\ith stringy bark. A small 
fire is carried on a clay floor. The AustraHans are great 
fishermen, and have invented a barbed harpoon, and 
fish-hooks of shell and wood. 

The point of the comparison is that in Europe, after 
Mousterian times, we come across well-made harpoons, 
which could only have been used for fishing. These could 
not have developed without long experiment. Mousterian 
man may have gone fishing with a spear without barbs, 
and from his poor catches may have thought out the more 
efEective harpoon. Therefore they must have used some 




Fig. 38.— Making Fire. 

form of canoe, which, 
of course, has long 
since disappeared, so 
we turn to another 
primitive people for 
inspiration. The Aus- 
tralians make another 
form of- canoe where 
bark is sewn on to 
the framework. The 
coracle of Wales and 
Ireland, the kayak 
and umiak of the 
Eskimo, were of this 
form, only skins were 
used instead of bark, apd this may have been the Mouster- 
ian method. We do know that in Europe in Neolithic 
times the dug-out canoe was employed. 
h The Australians carry on trade by barter. The red 
ochre they need for decorating their bodies, may be 
exchanged for stone suitable for making implements. 
They have not any form of writing, but send news about 
by message sticks. There is one in the British Museum 
from North Queensland. It resembles a short wooden lath 
about 3 inches long, with zigzag cuts and notches. The 
meaning of the message is " that the dogs are being properly 
cared for, and that the writer wants clothes." The lady 
would not have worn more than a skin cloak, with perhaps 
a hair fringe round her waist, and a necklace of shells, 
so that her dress allowance would not have needed to 
have been a very large one. We do not hear the husband's 
reply, but expect it was that he was short of the equivalent 
of cash. The AustraUans are excellent hunters, as were 
the Tasmanians. Kangaroos are eaten, also almost all 
the other animals and birds, grubs and the pupse of ants, 
fish and shell-fish. Their cooking is very much like that 
of the Tasmanians (p. 42), the animals being first gutted 
are cooked in a pit. All tendons are removed for use. 

Another notable development is that the women collect 
the seeds of various grasses and plants, and grind these 
down between stones and winnow by pouring from one 
pitchi into another, so that the husks are blown away. 



They make rough cakes of the resulting flour. The pitchi 
is a shallow wooden trough used for shovel or scoop as 
well. The Mousterians may have collected seeds in the 
same way, and so have started the long chain which led 
up to the household loaf of to-day. The Australian women 
use a yam or digging-stick, like the one illustrated (Fig. 62), 
but not loaded with a stone to increase weight. The yam- 
stick is not used to cultivate the soil, but for digging up 
honey ants or lizards which are eaten. Remember we 
have seen that Darwin found people living exclusively on 
meat, and that this was general before the advent of agri- 
culture ; but this collecting of seeds would naturally 
have suggested the idea of growing plants for food. 

The Australians did not practise cannibalism, except 
in a ceremonial way, when, as is the case in Victoria, they 
regarded it as a reverent method of disposing of dead 

We have seen (p. 43) that the Tasmanians made rush 
baskets, and grass rope for climbing trees and tying up 
their rafts. With the rope they would have learned the 
principle of twisting together short lengths of fibre, so 
that these made a continuous string. This is the principle 
of all spinning. The wool with which the stockings of 
our readers are darned is in reality a number of short 
hairs kept in shape by the twist of the spindle of the 
spinning machine. Fray out an inch of wool and see. 
The Arunta tribes in Central Australia can manufacture 
twine of fur or human hair. For this they use a spindle 
as A (shown in Fig. 40) : this is a stick about 14 inches long, 
which at the spinning end is pushed through holes in two 
thin curved sticks, about 6 inches long, placed at right 
angles to one another. Some fur or hair is pulled out, 
and part of it twisted with the finger into a thread long 
enough to be tied on to the end of the spindle ; this is 
rotated by being rubbed up or down the thigh. The 
remainder of the fur held in the hand is allowed to be drawn 
out as the spindle twists the thread ; this is then wound up 
on to the spindle, and more of the fur paid out, and more 
thread twisted. This, we think, is the greatest achieve- 
ment of the Australians, and they, as we have seen, are 
to all intents and purposes living in a Stone Age. The 
problem is, for how long they have used the spindle ; 



did they bring it with them in remote ages from the main- 
land ; did prehistoric man, whom the AustraHans so 
closely resemble, use a spindle ? They must have needed 
rope, and if they made it in this way, then the sixteenth- 
century spinning-wheel, and the eighteenth-century 
spinning-jenny, would have their roots very deep in the 
past, because both are only mechanically driven spindles 
which trace their descent from something like Fig. 40. 
The Australian does not use his twine for weaving, but 
contents himself with making net bags. Fig. 28 shows a 
still more primitive method of making twne out of long 
shreds of bark. 

The Australians have a very complicated system of 
relationship. A group will be divided into two classes 
or phratries : one-half may be Crows, the other Lizards. 
A Crow would marry a Lizard, not another Crow ; would be 
kind to all the other Crows, and regard the birds of that 
name as feathered friends. This was a means not only 
of binding men together in fellowship and friendship, 
but it preserved the decencies, and prevented the marriage 
of persons too closely related for it to be seemly. Each 
group had' various ceremonies, generally concerned with 
invoking the totem animal to promote plenty. In 
Aurignacian times in Europe, it is suggested that the 
cave paintings may have had totemic significance. Totem- 
ism is very widely spread, and gives us a new respect for 
primitive peoples ; it shows them shaping their lives to a 
system, and not just chattering their way along like so 
many monkeys. 

The Australians have not any other settled form of 
government, but each group or tribe has a headman, who 
by reason of skill in hunting or special gifts takes the lead. 
They are not a quarrelsome people. War is a terrible 
luxury in which primitive man cannot afford to indulge. 
His quarrels were mere skirmishes as to boundaries of 
hunting-grounds ; it never occurs to the Australian to 
steal his neighbour's territory. In his opinion this is 
inhabited by the spirits of their ancestors, and so would 
be a useless possession to him. 

The Australians very frequently associate death not 
with natural causes, but with magic wrought by an 
enemy. This leads to trouble, because if the medicine 





man of the tribe names the enemy, and the enemy 
is a neighbour, he is tracked down and put to death. 
In this way the unfortunate native helps to bring about 
his own extinction. This fear of magic has always been 
strong in the minds of primitive people. 

Games of all sorts are played by the children, who 
practise throwing spears, and also an amusing little imple- 
ment called the "weet-weet," because it has the form of a 
kangaroo rat. Then a day comes when the boys are 
grown up, and are initiated and become men. Dances 
are performed by the men before the novitiates to typify 
essential qualities. The dog and kangaroo are shown 
for endurance and speed. The boy has one of his front 
teeth knocked out to teach him to bear pain. The bull 
roarer, a long flat leaf-shaped piece of wood scored across, 
is whirled round on a thong, and the whistling noise 
it makes is thought to be the voice of a god. It is the 
boy's introduction to the spiritual life of the tribe ; to a 
knowledge of the Mysteries, and of the High God who lives 
in the Sky. 

When an Australian is born it is assumed that he 
brings with him a churinga ; these are long flat pieces of 
wood or stone with rounded ends, marked with various 
totem devices, and considered sacred objects. These are 
deposited in caves, and only brought out for ceremonies. 

The Australians have various methods of disposing of 
their dead, but burial is the most general. With the bodies 
are interred weapons, food, and a drinking-cup for use 
in the happy hunting-grounds, so that in one more detail 
they resemble the Mousterian man of La Chapelle aux 
Saints, with whose remains a flint boucher was found. 

We need not continue these comparisons, but we hope 
that those we have given may help to build up a picture 
of what the surroundings of Mousterian man may have 
been like. 

At the end of the second chapter we gave a sketch of 
Chellean man, and tried to show that his most urgent need 
was food ; that unless he hunted, he starved, and could 
not depend, as we do, on a shop round the corner, and the 
effort of other men. This was the material side of his life ; 
but what of the spiritual ? We shall be quite wrong if 
we think of primitive man as being qnly concerned with 



food, because man 
has always demanded 
some other interest. 

We have the very 
early belief in a life 
hereafter, in the 
happy hunting- 
grounds, where condi- 
tions were kindlier, 
and there was more 
opportunity to ex- 
pand. The Chapelle 
aux Saints burial, 
with flint implements 
to hand, for use in 
the spirit world, points 
to this. How did this 
come about ? Primi- 
tive man, or woman, 
curled round asleep 
by his fire, dreamed 
dreams and saw vis- 
ions ; his spirit seemed 
to separate from his 
body, and he joined 
old friends who were dead, and with them followed in the 
chase, or did the wonderful things we all do in our dreams. 
When he awakened and rubbed sleepy eyes to find his own 
fireside, he told his friends of his adventures ; that so 
and so was not dead, but a spirit in a wonderful world. 
We can see the beginnings of ancestor worship. An acute 
fit of indigestion, coming after too much mammoth, .vould 
have provided the nightmare, and its equivalent horrors, 
and an underworld of bad spirits. 

The man of imagination would have polished up the 
tale, and filled in the gaps, and gaining much renown 
thereby, became the medicine man or priest. He would 
exorcise the evil spirits, for a consideration, or bring messages 
from the good ones. At other times, in the excitement 
of hunting, the voice of the man would be echoed back 
from the hills, where by search he could find no other 
people. It was magical and mysterious, just as it was 
E 65 

Fig. 40. — A Primitive Spindle. 


when his own face looked back at him from the pool to 
which he stooped to drink. 

The sun, moon, and stars gave him cause for wonder, 
and glaciers mightier than the Baltoro seemed to him 
alive, as they crept to the sea. He made them gods. 
Perhaps on a stormy day he looked through a rift in the 
clouds, and saw others heaped and peaked into glittering 
pinnacles lighted by a sun he could not see himself, and 
thought of it all as the pleasant country of the land of 
dreams. The long nights and storms made him fearful. 

We can never know very much about the poor Mousterian, 
because, most sadly to relate, at the end of the Fourth 
Glacial period he became extinct in Europe. He had 
done as much as was possible for him. His large head, 
with the thick frontal bones, must have been very good 
for butting a brother Neanderthaler, but it was no use 
against the stone wall of advancing civilization, and like 
the Tasmanian and Bushman, the Red Indian and 
Australian of nowadays, he fades out of the picture, and 
his place is taken by a cleverer people. 


Fig. 41. — The Cro-Magnon Man. 




WITH Mousterian man the Lower Palaeolithic period 
of the Old Stone Age came to an end, and the 
next phase we shall consider will be the Upper 
Palaeolithic. At the base of this we find the Aurignacian 
or Loess men, and of these there are at least three types. 
Fig. 41 shows the Cro-Magnon, and is a sufScient explana- 
tion why the poor old Neanderthaler or Mousterian went 
to the wall. 

The Cro-Magnon man gains his name because his remains; 
were found in a rock shelter of that name in the valley of 
the Vezere ; the same river which has the cave of Le 
Moustier on its banks (p. 49). The bodies had evidently 


Fig. 42. — Combe Capelle Man. 

been buried with reverence and were probably clothed. 
Flint implements for use in the spirit world were found 
with the skeletons. The Cro-Magnon people were a fine 
race, with an average height of 6 feet. The skulls are 
dolichocephahc (p. 24), cephaHc index 73-41, well shaped 
with a capacity of 1590 to 1715 cubic centimetres, quite 
up to the average to-day. The faces were broad and the 
chin well developed. Man's jaw was the last thing to be 
civiUzed. Our drawing (Fig. 41) has been made from the 
plaster ■ casts at the British Museum, and shows a type 
which can be recognized as modern man (Homo sapiens). 

The second type (Fig. 42) was discovered in 1909 at 
Combe Capelle, on the Couze, a tributary of the Dordogne. 
The body when buried had been provided with flint imple- 
ments, and perforated shells were found which had 
probably been used to decorate the clothing. The skull 
is very long and narrow, and the skeleton that of a man of 
short stature, in contrast to the Cro-Magnon, who was tall. 

An Aurignacian skeleton has been found in this country 
at Paviland, in South Wales. 

At the same time there appears to have been a third 
type, the Grimaldi, in Europe during Aurignacian times 
(Fig. 43). Skeletons have been found at the Grotte des 


Fig. 43. — Grimaldi Man. 

Enfants at^Mentone, which show marked differences to the 
Cro-Magnon man. The skulls are dolichocephalic, but the 
mouth projected in a prognathous manner, with the chin 
retreating under. The nose was flat and of negroid 
character ; the people not more than 5 feet to 5 feet 
6 inches in height. Prof. Sollas, in his book Ancient 
Hunters, reviews the evidence which points to these people 
as the ancestors of the Bushmen of South Africa ; they 
may, in fact, have first come from Africa, and then have 
been forced back by the cleverer Cro-Magnons. The 
Aurignacians were cave-dwellers but lived as well in the 
open ; their camps have been found in the newer Loess 
(p. 14), and for this reason they have been called the Loess 
Men. If, as has been thought, the Bushmen may be the 
descendants of the Aurignacians, we may perhaps assume 
that the Loess men had the same sort of huts. These the 
Bushmen constructed, much as the gipsy does to-day, 
with a frame-work of bent sticks covered with skins (Fig. 44). 
Darwin wrote of the " toldos " of the Indians near Bahia 
Blanca, South America, " these are round like ovens, 
and covered with hides ; by the mouth of each a tapering 
chuzo (spear) was stuck in the ground." 



Fig. 45. — ^The Spokeshave. 

The Aurignacian people improved on the Mousterian 
flint implements ; we find several sorts of scrapers, knives, 
and gravers ; the latter a tool for engraving of which 
they made very clever use. There are scrapers flaked 
ingeniously into very useful spokeshaves, and Fig. 45 
shows a man shaving down the shaft for a lance. The 
Aurignacian man, judged by the variety of tools which 
he possessed, must have been a clever workman making 
ail sorts of things ; remember all his woodwork has dis- 
appeared, and we only find now the imperishable flint, 
and some bone implements. With his burin, or graving 
tool he easily cut pieces out of reindeer horns, and made 
arrow and spear heads. This use of bone marks another 
step forwax--d, and from now on we shall find many examples 
of this new material. Bone bodkins were used to pierce 
skins and pass sinews through, then the bodkin had a 
blunt barb formed at one end to pull the thong through 


Fig. 46. — Shaft-straightening. 

like a crochet-needle, and so led up to the bone needles 
of Upper Solutrean times later on (Fig. 52). Later on we 
shall find barbed harpoons. The Aurignacian used the 
bow and arrow — we know this because shaft-straighteners 
have been found, bored to take shafts of different thick- 
nesses. These were used as shown in Fig. 46. The shaft, 
after having been shaved clean, would have been passed 
over a wood fire to make it supple, and then slipped through 
the hole of the shaft-straightener, which is cut obliquely. 
It can be seen that pressure applied on the handle would 
bend the shaft in any desired direction. The natives of 
the Punjab in India still straighten bamboos in this way, 
only their shaft-straightener is a substantial post set 
strongly in the ground. Through this there are bored 
holes, and the warmed bamboo is put through these, and 
curves removed by bending the stem in an opposite 
direction. The Eskimo, on the other hand, follows the 
Aurignacian way. The early bow, Hke the early gun, 
was probably not very effective, and the spear must have 
remained the great weapon. Darwin, writing of the 
Indians from the south of Chile, said : " The only weapon 
of an Indian is a very long bamboo or chuzo, ornamented 
with ostrich feathers, and pointed by a sharp spear-head." 



Fig. 47.— The Bow-drill. 

The boring of holes 
in the shaft-straigh- 
tener, and the use 
of the bow, suggests 
that the Aurignac- 
ians used the bow- 
drill both to bore 
holes and make fire, 
as the Eskimos do 
(Fig. 47). 

The Aurignacians 
hunted as the Mous- 
terians had done for 
their food, and 
people had not yet 
learned how to 
domesticate ani- 
mals, or grow food- 
stuffs. The reindeer 
were very plentiful ; 
so much is this the 

case that the French archaeologists talk of the Upper Palaeo- 
lithic as the Age of the Reindeer. The climate was improv- 
ing, and as the Fourth Glacial period receded, game became 
more plentiful. The horse was eaten in those days, and in 
France huge mounds of the bones have been discovered, 
left as the debris of many Aurignacian feasts. Even so 
late as 1831 Darwin wrote of South American troops: 
" Mare's flesh is the only food which the soldiers have 
when on an expedition." 

Here is an account of how the horses may have been 
caught, taken from Falconer's Patagonia: "The Inaians 
drive troops of wild horses into a ' Corral ' encompassed 
by high cliffs between 30 and 40 feet high, excepting at one 
spot where the entrance lies. This is guarded to keep 
them secure." 

In our part of the country, at Ivinghoe Beacon, is a 
curious cleft in the hills, which tradition says was a wolf 
trap in olden days, and its form certainly lends to it the 
appearance of a corral. There appears to have been 
plenty of food in Aurignacian times. Fig. 48 has been 
drawn from the skeleton of the Irish Deer {Cervus giganteus) 



m the Natural History Museum This splendid animal 
was found in Europe during Pleistocene times. 

There is another fact which goes to show that the 
conditions ot hte were becoming easier. Man and perhaps 
woman began to draw, and to do so extremely well. This 
is a most interesting fact, and one which should be noted, 
that the tribe was content to let these people spend their 
time in this way. One can imagine that the Mousterian 
or Neanderthaler, very much occupied with the struggle 
for exi'^tence at the end of the Fourth Glacial period, would 
have dealt sternly ^vith the budding artist, who desired 
to cut his share of the " chores," because he wanted to 
draw ; but in Aurignacian times he was allowed to do so, 
and dra^ving and scuplture extended into the Magdalenian 
period. These drawings and paintings are something 
altogether beyond the art of ordinary savage people. 
The Australians, for instance, decorate their wooden shields 
with red, white, and black, wavy lines, and lozenges, which 
have a pleasantly decorative effect ; but of the polychrome 
figures which marked the culmination of Magdalenian 
art, the Abbe Breuil has written: " et qui place les vieux 
peintres des ages glyptiques bien au-dessus deb animaliers 
de toutes les civilizations de I'orient classique et de la 
Grece." So here is another problem ; it is quite certain 
that endless experiment must have been made before the 
artists could have arrived at such marvellous dexterity. 
How did these wonderful people jump out of the void of 
time ? These dra\\ings were first discovered by a Spanish 
nobleman, Marcellino de Santuola, Avho lived at Santander, 
Spain. He was interested in archaeolog3^ and was digging 
one day in the cave of Altamira, near his home. With 
him was his little daughter, who tired of watching the 
digging, wandered round the cave, and alarmed her father 
by calling out " Toros ! Toros ! " Bulls in a cave would be 
somewhat alarming, and M. Santuola, hurrying to the rescue, 
found the small girl gazing at the roof of the cavern. 
Here he discovered dra\\'ings and paintings of bulls, 
bison, deer, horses, and many other animals, some life 
size. The discovery threw the archaeological world into 
commotion — most discoveries do ; people could not believe 
that these really wonderful drawings could have been 
produced at such an early stage in the world's history. 


Fig. 48. — Cei-z'us giganieus, the Irish Deer. 

Just as the Neanderthaler was not at first believed to be 
a man, and the EoHths are not yet generally recognized 
as the work of man, so the Altamira drawings were received 
with scepticism. That stage has been passed through 
now, many books have been written, innumerable papers 
read before learned societies, and other dra^^'ings dis- 
covered in certain French caves, which have convinced 
the archaeologists that in the Altamira cave are authentic 
works oi the earliest period of the world's art ; and we owe 
the discovery to one smaU girl who called "Toros!" in 
alarm to her father. 

The old painters seem to have started with drawings 
in outline like Fig. 49, and then later in Magdalenian times 
they passed on to colour (as Fig. i), and some of these 
have an engraved outline. If our readers are interested, 
they should try and see a book by the Abbe Breuil, a 
distinguished Frenchman who has made a special study 
of this work. 

We must pass on to a consideration of what purpose 



the drawings served. At Altamira they are in a dark 
cave, which has a total length of 280 metres ; and a metre 
is about 3 feet 3J inches. There is no light in the cave, 
and the figures occur over all the walls. They cannot be 
seen now without a light, and a lamp must have been used 
when they were painted ; so we have another discovery, 
that man had artificial illumination in Aurignacian times. 
A dark cave, though, does not make a good picture gallery 
for display, and it does not seem as if the Cave were the 
National Gallery of the day. 

Many suggestions have been made as to the uses of the 
paintings ; one is that as most of the animals drawn are 
those which were hunted for food, the paintings formed a 
magic which placed the animals under the power of the 
medicine man of the tribe. Many of the animals are 
drawn with arrows sticking in their bodies ; on some the 
heart is shown in red. This was a practice which lingered 
on till recent times — to make a model of your enemy 
and stick it full of pins ; that is, if you were a spiteful 
person and wished him harm. 

The Aurignacians were accomplished sculptors and 
modelled quite good little figures in the round about 4 to 5 
inches high, and as well in low relief. A curious detail 
is that the faces are not rendered ; in their drawings and 
paintings, they seldom if ever presented the human figure, 
except occasionally by grotesque faces. This may have 
arisen from the fact that primitive people think that a 
picture or figure of a man becomes part of his personality. 
If damage be done to it, then it reacts on the man, so any 
recognizable portrait of an individual doubles his risks. 
In the case of the animals drawn this was desirable to the 

Another suggestion is that the mammoth, the bison, 
or any of the animals drawn, might have been the Totem 
of the tribe ; that they were grouped in clans, as the 
brothers of the bison perhaps. This, as we have seen, was 
a practice with the Australians, the Red Indians of America, 
and the boy scouts of to-day. The Altamira cave in this 
case would have been the temple in which were preserved 
totem symbols. One peculiarity at Altamira is that one 
drawing is frequently found made on the top of another. 
The interiors of the loftier caves must have first turned 


Fig. 49.— Aurignacian Drawing. 



men's ideas in the direction of fine building ; something 
which should be nobler than their little huts, and suitable 
for ceremonies. Imagine prehistoric man first finding his 
wa\- into a cave, from the lofty roof of which hung down 
stalactites, like pendants to the fan vaulting of Henry 
the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster. The stalagmites 
like rising columns, and all the glittering points would 
have thrown back the light of his lamp. The cave origin- 
ated the idea of building which we shall see later as Picts' 
houses, and at first must have been used as the tribal 
temples. In the painted caves of France and Spain are 
foui:d the imprints of hands. A hand has evidently been 
smeared with colour, and then printed on to the surface 
of the rock or the hand placed there first, and then colour 
dusted over it, leaving a white silhouette when the hand 
was removed. JNIany of the hands show traces of mutila- 
tion ; that is, the end of a finger has been cut off at the 
joint. This dismal practice was widely spread and lasted 
until recent times. It was a torm of sacrifice. It existed 
among the Australians, the Bushmen of South Africa, 
and some of the Red Indians, lor example, and was 
practised for a variety of causes, generally as a sign 
of grief, and to implore the better favour of the gods 
in future. It seems reasonable, then, to suppose that the 
Aurignacian people lost the fingers, which must have been 
so useful to them, in some such way. 

The Aurignacian women, and perhaps the men as 
well, appear to have been fond of trying to make themselves 
beautiful. Here in Great Britain, at Paviland Cave in 
Wales, were found perforated wolves' teeth for use as a 
necklace, and an ivory bracelet made by sawing rings 
through the hollow base of a mammoth's tusk. Fig. 50 
shows a wolf's tooth from Ivinghoe Beacon. W^e can also 
be quite sure that so gifted a people as the Aurignacians 
must have experimented in the production of music. 
We know that they had bows and arrows. The twang 
of the bow led to our piano. The latter is only a harp 
on its side, the strings of which are struck with hammers 
instead of plucked with the fingers, and the harp is the 
bow with many strings ; the reed and pipe would lead to 
the horn, and the drum has always been the great instru- 
ment of the native musician. At Alpera, in Spain, are 


some wonderful paintings of late Palaeo- 
lithic date, and here are shown figures 
of women who seem to be dancing. Now 
dancing means some sort of music, and 
the cheerful tum-tum of a drum is almost 
necessary if one is to keep time. In the 
original Alpera drawings are figures 
which appear to be wearing quaint 
head-dresses ; perhaps this was a mas- 
querade. If all this sounds improbable, 
remember their wonderful drawings ; to 
such people much is possible. Dancing Fig. 50. 
has always been an accomplishment of ated Wolf s Fang, 
1 T^ • i j: "om Ivinghoe 

savage people. Darwin wrote of a Beacon 

" corrobery," or dancing party, of the 
aborigines in Australia, held at night by the light of fires, 
the women and children squatting round as spectators. 
An " Emu dance, in which each man extended his arm 
in a bent manner, like the neck of that bird. In another 
dance, one man imitated the movements of a kangaroo 
grazing in the woods, whilst a second crawled up, and 
pretended to spear him." In this way they dramatized 
their everyday life. 


The next division of the Upper Palaeolithic is the one 
which the archaeologists have named the Solutrean, after 
Solutre, near Ma9on (Saone-et-Loire) in France. Solutrean 
man appears to have lived in England, because evidences 
of his industry have been found at Paviland Cave in Sou^^h 
Wales, and Cress well Crags, Derbyshire ; as well as in France, 
Central Europe, and the North of Spain, but not in Italy. 
The Solutreans may have been horse hunters who invaded 
Europe along the open grasslands of the Loess (p. 14). 
It has been assumed that they were a warlike race, because 
of the very beautiful flint lance-heads which have been 
found ; some of these are like an assegai, and would have 
been deadly weapons (Fig. 51). They are beautifully 
flaked flints, shaped like a laurel leaf, from which they get 
their name (pointe en feuille de laurier) ; the smaller types 


like a willow leaf, and so 
called (pointe en feuille 
de saule). B shows the 
highest Palaeolithic de- 
v^elopment of flint flak- 
ing, the pointe cl cran, or 
shouldered point, by 
which a primitive barb 
was formed. C is an 
arrow-head with a flint 
tang which could be 
bound on to the shaft. 

Flint flaking came to 
its highest point of de- 
velopment in the Old 
Stone Age in Solutrean 
times, though it was to 
revive again later in the 
New Stone, or Neolithic 
Age. The Solutreans 
made borers, scrapers, 
and arrow-heads ; they, 
in fact, carried on the 
traditions of the Aurig- 
nacians ; bone and ivory 
were used ; and painting 
and drawing continued. 
Perhaps the most wonder- 
ful development of this 
time was the bone 
needle ; at the begin- 
ning the sewing had 
been done in the same way that a shoemaker sews 
the sole of a shoe now, by boring a hole with a bone 
awl, and then passing a thread through. Of course, the 
Aurignacians had not any thread, but must have used 
fine sinews in this way. The next step was to hook the 
end of the awl so that the sinew could be pulled through, 
using the awl first to pierce the hole, and then as a crochet- 
needle to pull the thread through. The final step was to 
combine the two operations into one by the use of the needle, 
which pierced the hole, and carried the thread through 


Fig. 51. — Solutrean Flints. 

Fig. 52. — Making of Bone Needles. 

itself (see A, B, and C, Fig. 52). To realize the joy of a 
Solutrean woman who first used a needle, let us imagine 
ourselves sewing to-day like a shoemaker, punching 
holes one at a time. 

*' Fig. 52 shows a Solutrean needlemaker at work; first 
she cut a splinter of bone out of reindeer horn, as at i. 
This was done by cutting a groove on each side with a 
flint graving tool, as at 2. The splinter was then shaved 
down with a scraper, as 3, and polished with a piece of 
stone, as 4, and the eye bored with a flint borer, as 5. You 

F 81 


can see, at the British Museum, the actual needles and 
the implements with which they were made, and it is 
worth a visit to see these. A sewing machine is a mechani- 
cally operated needle. At the British Museum you can 
see the start of the whole long business which led up to 
the sewing machine. Magdalenian women later on used 
hollow bones as needle-cases. 

Though the Fourth Glacial period was now long past 
and the weather was gradually becoming more temperate, 
it did not improve in a regular way. The weather was 
colder than in Aurignacian times, and the mammoth and 
reindeer Avere still found in Europe. 

Magdalenian Max 

We can now pass on to the Magdalenian men, who 
succeeded the Solutreans. The typical station of the 
industry is on the Vez^re, not far from the Castle of La 
Madeleine, hence the name. The Solutrean excelled in 
flint flaking, and the tool and the implement he made of 
it were both in this material. The Magdalenian used 
flint for his scrapers, borers, and gravers and finished them 
roughly. Foi the implements he made, he preferred bone 
and ivory. This detail at first may not seem of much 
importance, in reality it is as vital as if to-day we gave up 
steel and concrete and started using some new material. 
Flint was to have a wonderful renaissance in Neolithic 
times, later on, hefore it slowly gave way to bronze. In 
many ways the Magdalenians appear to have been the 
descendants of the Aurignacians. 

Magdalenian man appears to have been widely dis- 
tributed over Europe. At Altamira, in Spain, he added 
the masterpieces ci painting to the earlier drawings of the 
Aurignacians. He lived in France, Germany, and Belgium, 
and here in England his handiwork has been found at 
Kent's Hole in Devon, and Cresswell Crags in Derbyshire. 
We are so anchored nowadays, with our houses to Hve in, 
and farms to raise foodstuffs, that it is difficult to reahze 
this widespread distribution of prehistoric man, but in 
reality he needed far larger areas of land on which to hunt 
and find food. Prof. Sollas has an extremely interesting 


Fig. 55.— Chancelade Man. 

chapter in his book Ancient Hunters, in which he sums up 
the evidence of what Magdalenian man was like. So far 
as can be judged there were two types, the tall Cr6-Magnons, 
and a shorter race like the Eskimo of to-day. A skeleton 
of the former was found again in the Vezdre at Laugerie- 
Basse, Dordogne in France, which had been buried in a 
contracted position with knees drawn up. Cowrie shells 
were found with the bones, and it is thought must have 
been sewn on to the clothing of the bodj'-, which was 
probably fully clothed when buried. 

In 1888 another skeleton was found on the banks of 
the Beauronne, near Perigueux, Chancelade. It was of 
a shorter man than the Cro-Magnon, in many ways like 
the Combe Capelle type, the skull large and like those of 
the Eskimo to-day, with a ridge along the top. The 
head dolichocephalic and extraordinarily high (p. 24). 
Fig- 53 gives some idea of the appearance of the Chancelade 



man. It has been suggested that he was the ancestor of 
the Eskimo, and was gradually pushed out of the fertile 
regions by the new race of men who came in Neolithic 
times, later on. 

The climate was improving, and the Ice Age receding 
as a distant memory. The reindeer and mammoth were 
going north, and the Chancelade men, as hunters perhaps, 
followed their tracks, and so left the way open for the 
herdsmen and farmers who were to follow. 

Magdalenian man made his spear and arrow heads in 
ivory and reindeer horn ; these were spliced on to wooden 
shafts and consisted of long lance-like points (as i. Fig. 54). 
From these developed harpoons, first with one row of 
barbs, and then with two, as 2 and 3. This was a most 
useful discovery, that the barb would hold a fish after it 
had been speared ; one can imagine the disgust of the 
•arly fisherman who lost his catch ofi the plain lance ; 
his joy when he held it on the barbed harpoon. The first 
good fisherman's tale must have started with some such 
exploit. Spearing fish sounds a little unreal to-day, but 
there is an interesting account in Sir Walter Scott's Red- 
gauntlet, of sport carried on in this way on horseback. 
" They chased the fish at full gallop, and struck them with 
their barbed spears." The scene is laid in the estuary of 
the Solway at low water, when the " waters had receded 
from the large and level space of sand, through which a 
stream, now feeble and fordable, found its way to the 
ocean." Magdalenian man must have had many a good 
day's sport like this. Out of the barb of the harpoon, the 
fish-hook must have developed. All this was possible in 
bone, though an impossibihty in flint. Bone lends itself 
to decoration, and so the Magdalenian incised simple 
designs on his lance-heads. Smaller bone points have 
been found which suggest arrow-heads, but no bows. 
These being wooden would have decayed. This influence 
of material on design is very important ; it is a very false 
and bad art which wastes material or tortures it into a 
shape which is unsuitable, so these early Magdalenians 
were proper designers, in that they used their material 
in a right way. The harpoons show them to have been 
fishermen, and there are Magdalenian drawings of seal 
and salmon engraved on stone. One expects that the 


Fig. 54 — Spears and Harpoons. 

rivers then would have been like those in Western Canada 
to-day, where the salmon come up from the sea in tremend- 
ous quantities. 

Nos. 3A and 4 (Fig. 54) show another interesting develop- 
ment of the harpoon. Magdalenian specimens have been 
found with a movable head, and this suggests that they 
were used in the same way as the harpoons of the Eskimo. 
No. 5 is our suggestion of how the fish-hook developed 
out of the barb of the harpoon. As there are many other 
points of resemblance between the Eskimo and the 
Magdalenians, we will see if any useful comparisons can 
be drawn. 

The Eskimo are very widely distributed, as they must 
be, because they live by hunting. They depend on the 
seal, whale, and walrus for food and clothing, and these 
they hunt all along the Arctic coasts from Greenland to 
Alaska. They are a verv gifted pleasant people, who 

' 85 


have-not any idea of war, because their main concern is a 
struggle for existence amidst ice and snow. They do not 
work iron, though in later days they have made use of 
any pieces which they could get hold of from traders. 
The Eskimo works in bone and wood in a really wonderful 
way, as we shall see. He also appears to have inherited 
the skill of the Magdalenian in drawing. Dr. Nansen 
writes of an Eskimo from Cape York, who " took a pencil, 
a thing he had never seen before, and sketched the coast- 
Une along Smith's Sound from his birthplace northwards 
with astonishing accuracy." 

We will start with their methods of hunting. Seals 
are speared at blow-holes in the ice, but far more interesting 
are the methods by which they are harpooned in the open 
summer seas. The Eskimo then uses his kayak ; this is a 
boat as Fig. 55, which varies somewhat in the various 
districts, but in all is constructed on the same principle. 
On the west coast of Greenland it is about 17 feet long, 
and made of driftwood on a frame as Fig. 56, which is all 
bound together with thongs, and covered with sealskin. 
The kayak is decked over, and paddled with a double- 
bladed paddle. If we assume that the early Magdalenians 
were as clever as the Australians, and first made a bark canoe 
as Fig. 39, they would have found, as they left the rivers 
and ventured to sea, that the deck was an improvement. 
The harpoon with movable head (as 4, Fig. 54) suggests 
that they did go to sea, and attacked some larger quarry 
than the salmon. If they harpooned the seal with No. 3, 
the first convulsive plunge would have snapped off the 
head, and this was a precious possession. The head was 
made then to fit into a bone holder on the end of the 
lance, so that when the seal dived he wrenched it out of 
the holder only to find that it was still attached to the 
shaft by a leather thong. The Eskimo uses two harpoons, 
which are very beautiful developments of this idea. 

No. I, Fig. 57, shows their bladder dart. The head is 
removable and attached by a thong to the centre of the 
shaft, where in addition they fix a blown-up bladder. 
When the seal dives he is encumbered by the shaft, which 
is at right angles to the thong, and the bladder, which also 
marks his position when he comes to the surface. 

No. 2 shows the Eskimo harpoon. This had in old 


Fig. 56. — Framework of Kayak. 

days an ivory head, tipped with flint, fitted on to a bone 
shaft. This latter is protected from snapping, by being 
attached to the wooden shaft with thongs in a sort of 
ball and socket joint. The line is attached to the ivory 
head, and then passes over a stud on the harpoon shaft ; 
the loose line is carried on a holder on the kayak in front 
of the Eskimo, and the end is attached to a large sealskin 
float which rests at his back. The harpoon is thrown 
with a thrower in the same way that the Australian hurls 
his spears (Figs. 34 and 35). The head of the harpoon buries 
itself in the seal, and is so attached to the line that it turns 
at right angles in the wound. It is at once wrenched off 
the bone shaft, and the position of the seal is noted by the 
float which is thrown overboard. The wooden shaft 
floats and is picked up. 

As there are many very beautiful ivory or bone harpoon- 
throwers of Magdalenian times, it seems fair to assume that 
the seal was hunted then as it is by the Eskimo to-day. 

No. 3, Fig. 57, shows the bird-dart which is thrown with 
a thrower. The forward projecting barbs kill the bird 
if the actual point misses. All these weapons are carried 
by the Eskimo on the deck of the kayak, neatly fitted 
under thongs and ivory studs. 

The Eskimo's clothing is of sealskin, and his coat is 
arranged to fit closely around the circular rim of the hole 
in the deck in which he sits. He can be tumbled right 
over by a rough sea, and yet right himself with a turn of 
the paddle. 

The Magdalenian had bone needles, and his clothing 
may have been like this. 

At the British Museum there is a sledge made of drift- 
wood, with bone platings on the runners, all tied up with 
thongs. It should be seen to realize how primitive man 
manages without nails and screws. As well there are 
kayaks and a model of the umiak or women's boat. 
Fig. 58 shows an Eskimo game played rather like cup 
and ball. A very much simplified Polar bear is carved in 


ivory and pierced with many 
holes ; the bear has to be 
caught through one of the 
holes on the end of the stick. 

The boring of holes brings 
up the question of whether 
Magdalenian man used the 
bow-drill. Small ivory rods 
have been found, perforated 
at one end, with a slit at the 
other shaped into a mouth. 
This is thought to have been 
the bow. The bowstring 
was tied through the hole at 
one end, given a twist round 
the drill, and the bow then 
being bent, a loop in the 
bowstring was slipped into 
the notched end of the bow, 
and kept the latter bent. Our 
cut (Fig. 47) shows how the 
drill could then be rotated. 
Such drills are used by the 
Eskimo, and many other 
primitive people to-day, both 
to bore holes and produce 
fire by friction. 

Drawings have been dis- 
covered which are thought to 
represent tents or huts, and suggest that the Magdalenians 
had improved on those of the Aurignacians, as shown in 
Fig. 44. This round beehive form, made perhaps of 
willow withies, would have been weak in the crown, if 
the tent was of any size, yet it could be constructed very 
simply anywhere that saplings were found. One of the 
Magdalenian drawings suggests a type, as Fig. 59. Almost 
all the early hut builders seem to have dug a hole in the 
ground of circular shape. The earth removed was heaped 
up round the outside. In the centre of the hole a roof 
tree was set up, formed of the trunk of a tree, with a fork 
perhaps left at the top. Around this saplings were placed, 
their feet stuck into the surrounding mound, with the 


Fig. 57. — Eskimo Bladder Dart, 
Harpoon and Bird Dart. 

Fig. 58.— Eskimo Game. 

tops leaning against the roof tree. These formed the 
rafters, and if in between these were interlaced smaller 
boughs, it is quite easy to see that the whole could be 
covered with skins, or rough grass thatch. Quite a com- 
fortable little house could be made in this way, and we 
know that it is a type which was general in Neolithic times. 

Other Magdalenian drawings suggest a type, as Fig. 60, 
and this is a form of hut which is constructed by the 
North American Indians. 

The Magdalenians had their winter quarters in caves 
and rock shelters, and the period is named after the cave 
of La Madeleine on the banks of the Vezere. Did Mag- 
dalenian man, as he slowly travelled to the north, take 
with him a memory of the rock shelters of France, and 
hand down a building tradition to the Eskimos of to-day ? 
They have very interesting rock houses, and others which 
are constructed in a skilful way with blocks of snow. 
Stone lamps have been discovered, which suggest that the 
Magdalenian not only lighted but warmed his houses, as 
the Eskimo does to-day, by burning fat in a stone lamp 
with a moss wick. 

Fig. 6 1 shows the skin tent which the Eskimo uses on 
his summer wanderings. The plan resembles that of the 
houses ; there is the semicircular bed-place at A, and a 
central gangway at B, with cooking pots at the sides at C. 
The diagram shows how the tent is made with poles and 
covered with skins, the front portion being of membrane 
to admit light. Large stones serve to hold down the 


Fig. 59. — Type of Huts suggested by Magdalenian drawings. 

skins. We have included these drawings because we 
want to get as many representative types as we can of 
primitive dwelling-places. We shall find it useful later on. 
The Magdalenian, like the Eskimo, may have used his 
lamp for cooking, but here is an interesting description 
by Darwin of a Tahitian who prepared a meal in another 
way: " having made a small fire of sticks, placed a score of 
stones, of about the size of cricket balls, on the burning 
wood. In about ten minutes the sticks were consamed, 
and the stones hot. They had previously folded up in 
small parcels of leaves, pieces of beef, fish, ripe and unripe 
bananas, and the tops of the wild arum. These green 
parcels were laid in a layer between two layers of the hot 
stones, and the whole then covered up with earth, so that 
no smoke or steam could escape. In about a quarter of 
an hour, the whole was most deliciously cooked." This 
was a method used in Neolithic times later on. The 
Magdalenians may have used the reindeer for food in the 
winter, by drying the flesh over a wood fire, and then 


Fig. 6o. — Type of Huts suggested by Magdalenian drawings. 

Fig. 6i. — Eskimo Summer Tent. 



pounding it up, and preserving 

it by pouring over hot fat, 

rather Hke the pemmican of the 

Indian and Eskimo. 

We cannot be sure whether 

the Magdalenians had started 

cultivating the soil. Perforated 

stones have been found which 

may have been used to load the 

digging-stick, as Fig. 62. This 

is the method the Bushmen 

adopt, and Darwin mentioned ^ ^ t-.- ■ .~, 
.T i-., J- ,■ 1 ■ Fig. 62. — Diggintj-stick. 

the use of the diggmg-stick m 

Chile, to dig up roots, though this does not mean culti- 
vating them. 

The Magdalenian period marked the highest develop- 
ment of the art of prehistoric man. The paintings are 
of astonishing merit ; without being great sticklers for 
detail, these old painters caught the very spirit of the 
animals they painted. The mammoth swings along alive 
from the tip of his trunk to the end of his tufted tail. 
The bison and boar charge ; the reindeer and red deer 
move in a slow, easy canter. The drawings are proof of 
the immensely developed power of detailed observation 
which came to the hunter as part of his craft, and which 
is different to the sympathy shown in later days, when 
animals were domesticated. Fig. 63 shows a Magdalenian 
painting of a boar, and the frontispiece. Fig. i, a bison, 
from the Altamira Cave. 

The artists of those days used reds and browns, blacks 
and yellows, and were adepts at producing high lights, half- 
tones, and shadow. They appear to have started with a 
black outline, and then to have fitted in the body of the 
work, adding tone, or wiping away colour to get the effect 
of lights. The figures are often of life size, and their 
vigour makes us wish that we could draw animals in such 
a living way. 

M. Daleau has found in France, red oxide of iron, which 
formed the basis of one of the colours, the pestles with 
which it was ground, and the shoulder blades of animals 
that served as palettes. Brushes were used, and would 
not have been difficult to make. The paints were carried 


Fig. 63. — Magdalenian Cave Painting. 


Fig. 64. — Grazing Reindeer, engraved on a round bone. 

in little tubes made of reindeer horn ; truly there is nothing 
new under the sun, and we shall find some day, perhaps, 
a catalogue of a Magdalenian artists' colourman. We 
have said that these old painters caught the very spirit 
of the animals they drew, and to do this they realized 
that it was necessary to compose, or design, their shapes 
and outlines. To-day we can snapshot a horse while 
galloping, and the resulting photograph will not convey 
the sense of action that the Palaeolithic artist has obtained 
in Fig. 63. This is because the human eye cannot record 
movement with the rapidity of the lens of a camera. 
The artist realizes this, and presents instead a convention, 
or design, which we find more real than the reality of the 

The Magdalenian engravings on ivory, sometimes on 
the handles of their shaft-straighteners, were just as 
wonderful as the paintings. There is one in the British 
Museum from La Madeleine, of a mammoth which is 
splendid in its vigour. Figs. 64 and 65 are fine examples 
of engraving on bone. Fig. 66, of an ivory dagger at the 
British Museum, shows that Magdalenian man could carve 
in the round, as well as cut an incised line. Fig. 67 
shows a harpoon-thrower, the use of which was described 
on p. 88. Remember that all the engraving and carving 
was done with flint implements. 


Fig. 65. — Deer crossing a Stream, engraTed on a round bone. 

The drawings and engra\ings convince us that the 
artists knew the animals, and that their work was actual 
life-drawing ; in this way we can find that among the 
Magdalenian animals were mammoth, reindeer, and the 
great Irish deer, the bison and horse, the musk ox, glutton, 
and Arctic hare. These show that the climate was for 
some part of the Magdalenian period colder than in 
Aurignacian times. 

The illustrations we have given are sufficient to prove 
that the Magdalenians were a very highly gifted race. 
These people were becoming civilized, and they were artists, 
and so would have been pleasant and friendly. We cannot 
say how they said "How do you do" to one another; 
perhaps Hke the New Zealanders they rubbed noses. 
Darwin when he went there wrote : " they then squatted 
themselves down and held up their faces ; my companion 
standing over them, one after another, placed the bridge 


Fig. 66. — Magdalenian Carved Ivory Dagger. 

of his nose at right angles to theirs, and commenced 
pressing. This lasted rather longer thaji a cordial shake 
of the hand \\-ith us ; and as we vary the force of the grasp 
of the hand in shaking, so they do in pressing. During 
the process they uttered comfortable little grunts." 

To sum up, if it is correct, that certain bone rods which 
have been found at Aurignacian stations in France, are 
the bows of bow -drills, as Fig. 47. then this must be 
noted as another very considerable step forward. It is 
obxdous that the Aurignacians must have had some ready 
method for drilling their shaft-straighteners as Fig. 46. 
The bow-drill led to the modem lathe. We shall see that 
in later times the people knew how to turn quite well, 
and it is probable that they used a t}-pe of the primitive 
pole lathe. In this the rotary movement was conveyed, 
to the article to be turned, by a rope which was passed 
around it in the same way that the bowstring was apphed 
to the driU to turn it. The potter's wheel, which again 
foUows later on, is descended from the bow-drill. 

At the end of the third chapter we suggested that man. 
at first only concerned vriih. food, had begun to realize 
that there was a spiritual side to his nature. In Mag- 
dalenian times we find the manifestations of this in an 
appreciation of beauty ; there were artists in those 

Now Art is a much maligned word ; it reaUy means 
doing things, whereas science is knowing things. People 
nowadays think of an artist as a painter ; we should hke 
to define that individual as any man, or woman, who 
puts more into a job of work than they expect to take 
out of it ; the business man is one who wants to take 
out a little more than he puts in. 
G 97 

We should like to point out that 
an engineer may be a very good 
artist. A fine motor-car is a work 
of Art ; it has Beauty of form, and 
is designed with Truth, or it would 
not do its job, so that it possesses 
two of the great qualities ; there 
remains only Goodness. It therefore 
follows that no man can do fine work 
unless he has some appreciation of 
the underlying principles on which 
humanity has built itself up. At the 
very worst he can only be one-third 
bad, so credit must be given to the 
artists of all kinds. 

We like to think that good work 
has been one of the prime factors 
in the civilization of man, and we 
believe that dull mechanical work 
destroys the brain. If this is so, 
what of the poor factory hand of 
to-day, chained to the machine as its 
slave ? It is not possible for him to 
dream dreams, or see visons ; the 
utmost limit of his, or her, endea- 
vour, is, perhaps, to watch an auto- 
matic machine making nuts, each an 
exact counterpart of its fellow. 

We wonder, when our turn comes 
to be dug up, and have our skulls 
measured, say in 5000 a.d., if the 
archsologists of that far-away to- 
morrow will say. Here was a people 
who threw away their heritage, and 
arrested their development, because 
they lost the use of their hands. 

But so far as our friends the Mag- 
dalenians are concerned, judged by 
their work they had made great ad- 
vances, and, like the Eskimo whom 

they so closely resembled, must have been a pleasant 



Fic. 67. — Magdalen- 
ian Carved Ivory 
Harpoon- thrower. 

Fig. 68. — Round-headed 
Ofnet Man. 

Fig. 69. — Long-headed 
Ofnet Man. 


THE Azilians who followed after the Magdalenians, 
were the last people of the Old Stone Age. After 
this we come to Neolithic times, or the New Stone 
Age. The Azilians, like all these early peoples, were widely 
distributed, and traces of their handiwork have been 
found as far apart as the cave of Mas d'Azil, Aridge, 
near Lourdes in the south of France, and Sevenoaks and 
Hastings in England, and Oban in Scotland. The Scottish 
discoveries of harpoons are very interesting. It shows 
that the ice was retreating, and man making his way into 
the tracts of the newly uncovered land. 

We know what some of the Azilians were like because 
they had a curious habit of removing the heads from the 
bodies of their dead and burying the skulls like eggs in 
nests. At the Ofnet Cave, near Nordlingen, Bavaria, South 
Germany, twenty-seven were found together buried in red 
ochre. This would suggest that the Azilians used to paint 
their bodies in their lifetime, and so the colour was buried 
with them for use in the spirit world. One skull of a 
small child had many shells placed near it — perhaps as 



play-things. Round another was a chaplet of deer's teeth, 
and all were placed in the same way, looking westward. 
The actual bodies were probably consumed by fire ; later 
on cremation was a usual method, the ashes being buried 
in an um. 

Here is a new fact ; most of the old races we have been 
writing about were long-headed (dolichocephalic) ; we now 
find side by side with this t\-pe, brachycephalic, or a 
rounder headed people. The fact that indi\dduals of the 
two races were buried in the same grave points to their 
having lived together happily. So that if some Mag- 
dalenians moved north after the mammoth and the reindeer, 
others remained behind. 

Our drawing (Fig. 68) has been made from the rounder 
headed Ofnet skull. Fig. 69 is of the longer headed t\^e. 

We do not find any beautiful paintings in this period. 
Man was beginning to look on animals from a difierent 
point of view. In the old da>-s he had the hunter's eye, 
quick to note beauty of body and grace of movement, 
which he expressed in drawings ; in Azilian davs he mav 
have begun to look on himself as a herdsman, though so far 
only the dog was domesticated. The climate was milder, 
with westerly \\inds and warm rains ; the waters were rising. 
Great Britain was an island, and great forests spread over 
the land, except where the Loess lay thick (p. 14), and by 
fineness prevented the trees from taking root. Man, who 
had been free to roam over the tundra, was now hemmed 
in, so the old care-free life passed away, and he began to 
have possessions. 

These had to be useful, and we do not find any cunning 
work in ivory. The awl takes the place of the needle. 
Flint is revived for making implements, but in a rougher 
way than those of Solutrean times. Stag horn is used for 
harpoons instead of reindeer, so the Azihans also were 

The most interesting things which they have left behind 
them are the painted stones found at Mas d'Azil. These 
are flattish in shape, about 2 inches across, and painted 
with signs, as Fig. 70. Some of them are surprisinglv 
like early forms of letters — red and black was used. The 
use to which these stones were put is unknown, but they 
may have been tallies or accounts. If to-day you ask 



Fig. 70. — Azilian] 
Painted Stones. 

a labouring man to cart bricks or tiles, 
and keep count, he %vill do so in tens. 
These he chalks up on the bam door, and 
obtains his hundreds by ten tens. So 
these stones may have been tokens or 
tallies used by Azilian man in keeping 
the accounts of his trade by barter. We 
can be quite sure that some sort of trade 
had been in existence even long before 
this time. We have seen on p. 83 how 
cowrie shells were found with the Cro- 
Magnon type of skeleton at Laugerie- 
Basse. Four were near the head, and 
two at each elbow, knee, and foot. They 
must have been sewn on the clothing. 
These would have come from the Medi- 
terranean, and would have been rarities 
in the centre of France. The chiefs 
would have desired them on the principle 
that fine feathers, or shells, make fine 
birds, or men. So perhaps skins or harpoons were given 
in exchange. Don't be amused at these simple folk, 
because the exchange of commodities still remains as the 
basis of our trade, and we use money or bills of exchange 
as tallies or tokens. Life was becoming easier, and was 
perhaps not so much of a desperate struggle for survival 
as it had been. 

The Glacial Period had receded into the past, and the 
climate was temperate. WTiereas in Magdalenian times 
the countryside had the appearance of the Arctic tundra 
where the Eskimo now hve, in Azilian times it became 
well wooded. 

Before we leave the painted stones, we must draw 
attention to the fact that some of the markings are very 
much like Roman letters. From this some archaeologists 
have argued that the stones were the text-books from 
which Azilian boys learned their ABC. This is a tre- 
mendous flight of imagination, and a short cut indeed 
at the same time We feel that the Roman letter had to 
wait for thousands of years yet before it arrived at the 
character we know now. Turn the subject over in your 
mind, and think how prehistoric man conveyed informa- 



tion or asked for it. Our early friend, the Java sub-man, 
had rudimentary powers of speech ; he progressed as a 
baby does now. Our own very youngest brother learns 
to say " bread," because his small brain teaches him that 
this is what the grown-ups call the stuff which is so pleasant 
to eat ; speech comes first, then letters. All letters seem 
to have started as pictures. We know prehistoric man 
could draw splendidly ; if he met a man who did not 
understand his own language, he would naturally draw 
the thing he desired to obtain. We remember once 
buying a goose in Wales, from an old lady who spoke 
only Welsh, which we did not understand. We pointed 
to the goose, and by signs conveyed the idea that we 
wished to buy it. We then in the same way invited 
her to take as much money from our hand as she desired ; 
but we wished her to kill, draw, and deliver the bird in 
time for dinner the next day, at a farm some miles away. 
So to the great dehght of the old lady we drew pictures 
of the doom and journeyings of the goose, and in due 
course we dined ofi it ; but this would be a very laborious 
method for all. the actions of everyday life. The drawings 
then were standardized and simplified and in time became 
letters, and our old ABC, Hke everything else, has behind 
it a history stretching cmt across the horizons into the 
very beginnings of time itself. Our readers will know 
Kipling's delightful tale of How the Alphabet was made, in 
" Just So Stories." 

The probable Azilian deposits at Oban were found in 
a cave opening on to a sea-beach. Prof. Sollas mentions 
the fact that in a beach at Glasgow, which corresponds 
in age with the one at Oban, no less than eighteen dug-out 
canoes have been discovered. These may have belonged 
to Azihan man. On the rocky floor of the cave at Oban 
were successive deposits : first a pebbly gravel washed in 
by high tides, then a bed of shells, then gravel, and on 
top of this another shell-bed with a final topping of black 
earth, formed in later ages. The level of the land has gone 
up, perhaps as it lost its tremendous load of ice, or that 
of the sea gone down, because the cave is now some 30 feet 
above the sea-level. 

In the shell-beds are shells of oysters, limpets, whelks, 
the claws of lobsters, the bones of large sea fish, red deer, 



goat, pig, and many other animals. Ashes remain where 
the cooking hearths were. From all these remains we 
can be quite sure that Azilian man was both fisherman 
and hunter, and the bones of the large sea fish mean that 
he took his harpoon to sea, in some form of canoe, or boat, 
covered with skins. 

Man about this time seems to have been drawn more 
and more to the water. In Norway and Sweden, Azilian 
remains have been found which point to dwellings built 
on enormous rafts anchored in lakes. All sorts of imple- 
ments fell through the logs of which the rafts were com- 
posed, and have since been discovered in the peat which 
has formed in the old lake beds. Flint implements were 
used, and harpoons, spear-heads, and fish-hooks. The 
bones of dogs have been found, and it is thought this 
proves that they were domesticated by the Azilians. 

We do not know why man should have chosen such strange 
homes for himself and his family ; probably fear drove 
him there, but he had now no foes to fear like the sabre- 
toothed tiger. That fierce animal had long since gone ; 
perhaps it was the most terrible foe of all, his fellow-man, 
of equal cunning with himself, and far more subtle than 
the clumsy mammoth, that compelled him. to take refuge 
on the water. We shall see how in Neolithic times he 
built the Lake Dwellings on piles, and lived over the water, 
as he does to-day in New Guinea. If at about this time 
the dog became the friend of man, then again this marks 
another very notable step, and it would be extremely in- 
teresting to know how the long friendship began. Kipling 
in the " Just So Stories " gives us an idea. It is a proof of 
great intelUgence on the part of prehistoric man, because 
the dog would have been as useful an ally as fire, and 
flint, as well as being an excellent companion. It is almost 
impossible for us to imagine a world to-day with only wild 
dogs and wolves in it. 

We wanted to sum up the general impressions to be 
gathered from the life of prehistoric man, and the dog 
gives us the opportunity of doing so, by showing the 
difference that he made to man when he became friends. 

We have seen that the most urgent need of prehistoric 
man was food ; that as he had not domesticated any of 
the animals, except the dog, and did not grow any corn, 



he had to hunt to Hve, and was a wanderer because he 
followed the game. When the dog came as a friend, he 
brought an even keener sense of smell than that of pre- 
historic man, and so could follow the trail ; at the same time 
he would have simplified the task of stalking the animals. 
It was necessary to get within the limited range of a spear 
thrown by hand, before prehistoric man could kill his 
supper, and the dog would have helped by driving the game 
towards the hunter. 

With a more acute sense of hearing, the dog would have 
given prehistoric man the feeling of security which he so 
badly needed. The man would have been afraid of so 
many things ; the nasty little noises of the night would 
have alarmed him so much more than the howling ol 
wolves, which he knew ; there was the constant dread of 
magic and evil spirits. Prehistoric man then, crouching at 
the side of his camp-fire, looked out into encircling gloom, 
and saw the firelight reflected in the eyes of wild animals 
with more assurance when he had the dog beside him for 
a friend ; if the supper had to be shared, the dangers 
seemed to be halved. 

If we go back and think of the other things we have 
written about, we must bear in mind that the ancient 
hunters were helped in their wanderings by a differently 
shaped Europe to the one we know to-day. The isthmuses 
at Sicily, Gibraltar, and Dover, not only led to wide wander- 
ings on the part of Palaeolithic man, but opened the way 
for interesting migration of animals. The Southern types 
could come North, and the Northern go South if need be. 

Great climatic changes, like the Ice Ages, played their 
part in man's development, by adding the stern necessity 
of altering his mode of life, if he wished to survive. We 
look back on a Europe of those days, as on a broad but 
dimly lighted stage. Across it pass the huge E. antiquus, 
the hippo, and sabre-toothed tiger, later come the mam- 
moth and reindeer, with hyaenas, lions, and bears ; and 
man moves among them and seems to have changed least 
of any. 

Mr. Crawford, in his book Man and Ms Past, has taken 
an idea from Samuel Butler's Life and Habit, and applied it 
to prehistoric man ; it amounts to this, that man by the 
use of tools has added limbs to himself. He rides a bicycle 



to-day and, by the use of gears, progresses as rapidly as if he 
had as many legs as a centipede. A flint implement was 
as useful to prehistoric man as another hand. 

No animal uses tools ; they will use beak, claw, and tail 
as tools, which is a different matter. Man then, in times 
of great changes, Avas not called upon to alter his own body, 
to suit the altered circumstances. The animal does this, 
or rather in many generations, and at the cost of countless 
lives, it is done, or, as in the case of the great reptiles, the 
type becomes extinct. The weather becoming colder, the 
animal will gradually develop and grow a thicker coat, but 
man, with his tool, makes himself one quickly, and so 
leaves time to do all sorts of other things as well. 

In using his tools, man was worried and made to think ; 
his brain, and soul, chained up in the clumsy body, were 
stimulated by this endeavour to do work. It is this tool- 
using habit of man, and all that it means, which makes 
the early flint implements so interesting ; the hand-axes 
and scrapers, the borers and burins, have been prime factors 
in civilization, and their utility has many times meant the 
difference between life and death to whole races. 

Then we have the tremendous revelation of Magdalenian 
art, blazing up in the middle of the Stone Age, and then the 
flame being extinguished ; how did this come about ? In 
any summary of the Old Stone Age, there is always this 
problem to be thought of. 

It was the tools of prehistoric man which made possible 
the beginnings of so many other things. The harpoon 
must have been used from some sort of boat or canoe. 
The huts have developed into our houses ; the perforated 
wolf's fangs, or cowrie shells, strung together as a necklet, 
and the hollow base of a mammoth's tusk sawn off as a 
bracelet led the way for all the other people who wanted 
to make themselves beautiful. Bone needles made fine 
sewing and embroidery possible ; all this is part and parcel 
of archaeology, and there still remains plenty to do. 

Archaeology is like the design of a Roman pavement, built 
up of many small fragments, or tesserae. The main design is 
beginning to be known, but many of the details are missing. 
It is for this reason that research work goes on ; that 
camps are dug over, and ancient cities uncovered. IMany 
months' work may result in just one small piece of new 



knowledge. The archaeologist is delighted, and tells all 
his friends, and the little new tesserae is fitted into its place 
in the larger pattern ; but first it is tested in all ways, to 
see that it really fits, because these people are learned, and 
jealous that before any addition is made it shall be real 

If this book has given any of our readers any idea of 
even the outline of the pattern of this knowledge, we shall 
be very happy, because they can then start serious work 
on their own account. We can then pass on to how Neo- 
lithic man carried on his everyday life, which will be the 
subject of our next book. And now, in the friendliest way 
possible, we should like to take leave of our readers for a 
little time. 

"Tlie Dance" by F. C. Q. 



Note. — The ordinary figures denote references to pages of text, 
those in black type the Illustrations. 

ABC, loi, I02. 
Acheul, S , 9, ii, 14. 
Acheulean, 15, 37. 
Aeolian deposit, 14. 
Altamira, 74, 76, 82. 
Arrows, 71, 84. 
Artists, 74, 96. 
Aurignacian, 15, 71-86. 
— drawing, 77. 
Australians, 40, 54, 56, 60. 
Axes, 56. 

Azilian painted stones, loi. 
Azilians, 99. 


Barter, 43, 53, 60, loi. 
Boats and canoes, 42, 45, 

58, 63, 102. 
Bodkin, 71. 
Bolas, 53. 

Bone and ivory, 71 , 82, 83, 84. 
Boucher, 32, 37, 40, 53. 
Boucher de Perthes, M., 9, 

Bow-drill, 73, 89. 
Bracelet, 78. 
Brachycephalic, 24, 100. 
Break- wind, 36. 
Brushes, 93. 
Burials, 43, 64, 68, 83, 99, 

Burin, 71. 
Bushmen, 69. 

Caddington, 14, 15, 16, 23. 
Cannibalism, 54, 61. 
Cave-dwellers, 39, 48, 49. 
Caves, 78, 90 
Cephalic index, 24. 
Chancelade, 83, 84. 
Chapelle aux Saints, La, 49. 

man, 50. 

Chellean, 12, 15, 30. 
Chelles, 30. 
Churinga, 64. 
Cicatrization, 40. 
Clay banded, 9. 
— boulder, 8. 
Combe Capelle, 68. 
Cooking, 60, 91, 95. 
Corral, 73. 
Coup de poing, 27. 
Cresswell Crags, 29, 79, 82. 
Cro-Magnon, 49, 67. 
Cymotrichi, 55. 


Dagger, 97. 
Dancing, 79. 
Darwin, 18. 
Deer, 75. 
Derm, 15, 37. 
Digging-sticks, 61 93. 
Dinosaurs, 8. 
Dogs, 103. 

Dolichocephalic, 24, 69, 83. 
Drumlins, 8. 



Earth's axis, 5. 
Elephas antiquus, 12, 14, 28, 
33. 38. 

— meridionalis, 24, 28. 

— primigenius (Mammoth), 

H 38, 38. 

Engraving, 6, 75, 95, 96, 96. 
Eoliths, 19, 23, 27. 
Equinoxes, precession, 5. 
Ergeron, 15, 51. 
Eskimos, 84, 86. 

Fire making, 26, 30, 43, 58, 

Fishing, 58, 84. 
Flint, 27, 53. 
Food, 29, 30, 42, 46, 61, 73, 

76, 93, 102. 
Fossils, 2. 
Frere, John, 10. 
Fuegians, 20, 34-36. 

Galley Hill, 30. 
— Hill man, 31. 
Games, 64, 88, 90. 
Glacial Period, ist, 8. 

2nd, 9. 

3rd, 9. 

4th. 9. 

Glaciers, 7, u. 
Grimaldi man, 69. 
Grinding, 60. 
Grotte des Enfants, 69. 


Rafting, 58. 
Hand-axe, 27, 32, 37. 
Harpoons, 58, 85, 86, 88, 89. 
Harpoon- throwers, 8S, 98. 
Hastings, 99. 
Hippopotamus, 13. 
Horse, 28, 73. 
Huts, 36, 59, 70, 90, 91, 92. 

Ice Ages, 4. 

causes of, 4. 

Implements, flint, vi, 9, 10, 
II, 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, 25, 
27, 28, 32, 33, 34, 37, 47, 
53, 58, 71, 80, 81, 89. 

Initiation, 64. 

Interglacial Period, ist, 9. 

2nd, 9. 

3rd, 9. 

Isthmus, 13, 22, 33, 40, 42, 

Ivinghoe Beacon, j^, 78. 


Java sub-man, 17-23, 41, 42. 


Kayak, 86, 87, 88. 
Kent's Hole, 29, 82. 
Knives, 56. 
Krapina, 54. 

Lacustrine, 14. 
Lamps, 76, 90, 91. 
Laugerie-Basse, 83, loi. 
Leonardo da Vinci, i. 
Levallois flakes, 53. 
Lissotrichi, 55. 
Loess, 14, 51. 


Man, Chancelade, 83, 84. 

— Combe Capelle, 68. 

— Cro-Magnon, 67, 84. 

— Galley Hill, 31. 

— Grimaldi, 69. 

— La Chapelle aux Saints, 


— Magdalenian, 82, 83. 

— Neanderthal, 50, 51, 52. 

— Ofnet, 99, 100. 

— Piltdown, 21, 22, 23, 25. 

— Pithecanthropus, 17, 20, 


— Solutrean, 80. 



Madeleine, La, 49, 82, 91. 
Magdalenian painting. 
Frontispiece, 94, 95. 
Magic, 64, 66. 
Mammoth, 38, 82. 
Mas d'Azil, 99, 100. 
Mesaticephalic, 24. 
Message sticks, 60. 
Micoque, La, 49. 
Moraine girdle, 8. 
Moraines, 6. 
Mousterian, 15, 49, 50. 
Moustier, Le, 49, 67. 
Musk ox, 54. 
Mutilation, 78. 


Neanderthal, 50. 
— man, 50. 
Necklace, 40, 57, 78. 
Needles, 72, 80, 81, 82, 88. 

Oban, 99, 102. 
Ofnet, 99. 
— man, 99. 

Paints, 93. 

Paviland Cave, 68, 79. 
Picks, 56. 
Piltdown, 23. 

— man, 21. 
Pitfall, 29, 33. 
Pluvial deposit, 14. 
Post-Glacial Period, 9. 


Rafts, 42, 43, 45, 61, 103. 
Reindeer, 54, yi,, 82, 95. 
Rhinoceros, 38, 39. 
River drift period, 6, 9. 

— terraces, 8, 9, 11. 
Rivers, 13. 

Roches moutonnies, 6. 

Rope making and spinning, 
43, 47, 61, 65. 

Rostro-carinate (flint im- 
plement), vi, 22. 

Sahara, 13. 

Schotter fields, 8. 

Scraper, 34, 37, 71, 81. 

Sculptors, 76. 

Section across England, 3. 

Sevenoaks, 99. 

Shaft-straightening, 72. 

Shields, 56. 

Smith, William, i, 16. 

Solutre, 79. 

Solutrean, 79. 

— flints, 80. 
Somme, 9, 37. 

Spear, 28, 35, 40, 41, 43, 53, 85. 

— throwing, 55, 57. 
Spokeshave, 71. 
Steno, I. 

Stratified rocks, 3. 
Strepy, 27. 
Strepyan, 10, 11, 12, 28. 

Tasmanians, 35, 40, 42. 
Tents, 92, 90. 
Thames, river, 12, 13. 
Tiger, sabre-toothed, 16, 28, 

Totemism, 62, 76. 
Trackways, 13, 14. 
Tribal customs, 44, 46, 62. 
Trinil, 20. 


Ulotrichi, 55. 
Umiak, 60, 88. 


Wey, river, 12. 
Wolf's fang, 79. 


Yam-stick, 61. 




£acA volume will contain approximately 128 pages of text 
and illustrations, the latter being specially prepared from 
drawings in line and colour by the Authors. Crown %vo^ 
paper boards. Price c^s. net each volume. 

MESSRS. BATSFORD have the pleasure to 
announce that further volumes in this interesting 
and instructive Series are in preparation, the 
titles of which are as follows : — 






The aim of the Series is to present a readable story of 
the history of Human Life from Palaeolithic times to the 
close of the Renaissance. The Authors have illustrated 
their Work by a series of Drawings showing the probable 
appearance, pursuits, and environment of Man throughout 
the Ages, and the volumes will form a deeply interesting 
narrative to all who wish to increase their knowledge of the 
history of mankind. 







Written y Illustrated by 


Authors of "Everyday Things in England" 

" For he who would proceed aright in this matter 
should begin in youth to visit beautiful forms ; 
and first, if he be guided by his instructor aright, 
to love one such form only — out of that he should 
create fair thoughts ; and soon he will of himself 
perceive that the beauty of one form is akin to 
the beauty of another ; and then, if beauty of 
form in general is his pursuit, how foolish would 
he be not to recognize that the beauty in every 
form is one and the same." 

From the speech of Socrates, 
Symposium of Plato. 

Design by P. C. Q. 








. To face 





CHART .... 



• Before the New Stone Age — Kitchen Middens — Migra- 
tions — Geographical Conditions — The Naked Chalk — 
Trackways — Camps-*-Iberians — Celtic and Nordic Men 
Aryan-speaking People — Flint Implements — Cores — 
Flakes — Axes — Arrows — Huts — Hut Circles — Fires — 
Cooking — Com — Cakes — Pots — Pans — Earthworks — 
Fortification — Gateways — Water — Life in the Wild — 
Trapping — Civil Engineering — Long Barrows — Tombs — 
Houses — Towers — Rough Stone Monuments — Leverage 
— Wedges — Building Stonehen^e — Sun Temples — Nature 

n. THE BRONZE AGE . . . .51 

Bronze-Smelting — Swords and Spears — Heathery Burn — 
Spinning — Looms — Weaving — Costume — Razors — 
Wheels — Communications — Harvest — Pottery — Barial 
— Barrows — Hector — Patroklos — Trade — Trade Routes 
— Migrations— Tin — Trackways — Conditions of Life. 


Lake Dwellings — Glastonbury — Huts — St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral — David Cox — Ploughs — Smelting — Knives — Tools — 
Brooches — Lathes — The Axe — Iberians — Boats — Spears — 
Enamels — Chariots — Burials — Trackways — Surveying 
— Currency Bars — Conditions of Life — Celtic Legends. 



Fig. 2.— The Linces, Cheddington, Bucks. 


THIS book, like Everyday Life in the Old Stone Age, and 
Everyday Things in England, is primarily intended 
for boys and girls of public school age, but may be 
of some interest to their elders. It can only be an outline, 
but we hope that as such it will give our readers a broad view 
of certain principles which have governed the work of man. 
One of the first facts to be understood is this, that man when 
beginning very wisely models his work on something which 
has gone before. We can test this by thinking of the first 
motor-car, it was like a horse-drawn carriage with an engine 
under the driver's seat, only without the horse. The first 
train was a string of stage-coaches Hnked up to " Puffing 
Billy." We call the man who is responsible for maintaining 
the power in a modern engineering shop, a millwright, because 
he is the lineal descendant of the man who first produced 
power, by making wind and water mills. If we go back to 
prehistoric times we find that the bronze celt, or axe, was 
at first of the same shape as the stone one which had preceded 
it. Having made a start, by the adoption of a new material 
to an old form, man very soon discovers its possibihties and 
•so progress is made. History, then, cannot afford to neglect 
all these points of contact, which link up the development of 
man, and the influence which his work has had on him. The 
tale is a long, long tale, that goes back to the time when the 
man of Java descended to the foot of his tree, and upending, 
walked abroad to play the part of man. 

Another point to be borne in mind is that all work in its 
designs and construction is closely related. Nowadays the 
•specialist tries to shut off one trade from another in water- 



tight compartments, but if we come to a proper understanding 
of the matter, we shall find that, if we have the science of 
knowledge, the art of performance is not so much a mystery 
as some would have it. 

It may seem strange to suggest a wide view at an early 
stage, but how else can one see life as a whole, and determine 
what we are going to do. We shall, later on, talk much of the 
Hills, because men lived on the Hills in the time we are writing 
about. To Uve on the hilltops is good, for as we walk along 
the old trackways, we can look down on the fiat vales, and 
see the white roads winding through the cornfields, and the 
villages clustered round the churches. We get a fine idea of 
the lie of the land ; there may be a grubby patch on the 
horizon, where the smoke of an industrial town poisons its 
inhabitants ; we will not go that way. So resting on the hill- 
side now, we can map out our path, because once we are in 
the vale, among the trees, and in the villages, we shall be 
caught up in the throng, and lose our sense of direction. 
Our work, then, is to present in these books an outline of 
knowledge, which may lead to specialization later on. Before 
we pass to the subject-matter of this book, we should like to 
give a reminder that when we talk of the Old Stone or Palaeo- 
lithic Age, the New Stone or Neolithic Age, followed by those 
of Bronze and Early Iron, we are using terms invented by the 
archaeologists to denote various stages in the development 
of man. 

We have to think of man's development, proceeding con- 
tinuously, though not always improving or progressing. 
We found out in Part I. that man is rather like a tree. The 
race has periods of youth, and passes by way of flower, to 
fruition, and then decay, but always there is the promise of 
re-birth, so that the morsel of achievement which Nature 
deems worthy to survive may be carried on. It would be 
dismal without this promise, and the larger view of history 
an intolerable misery if we had not the hope that all will 
come right in the end. So we must be prepared for periods 
when the gods seem to nod and slumber, and little progress 
is made. There are other periods, like the one we are living 
in to-day, when the miseries and suffering, caused by a 
Great War, can only be remedied by a determined effort on 
the part of all the people, to be decent and kindly, and to do 
good work. 



We must bear in mind, in dealing with this Neolithic 
period, that moving impulses in the direction of progress 
will be bom out of favourable conditions, and intelligent 
peoples in some particular place, and that the impulse will 
spread from this to other parts of the world, so that one part 
of Europe, for example, will be ahead of another, and the 
movements and periods will overlap. Bronze may have 
been used in one place, while in another stone was still em- 

Another reminder must be that we are still, even up to the 
end of the Early Iron Age, and the coming of the Romans, 
for all practical purposes, so far as Britain is concerned, in 
the Prehistoric period, so called because it deals with all that 
time before there were written histories. We shall find then 
in the New, as in the Old Stone Age, that our historians are 
of the pick and shovel variety, because they have actually 
to dig in mother earth for the remains of man and his works. 

Having discovered Neolithic man and his simple apparatus 
for living, we shall have to do what we did in Part I., search 
for modern primitive races, as a model of what prehistoric 
life may have been like. Here we must be careful that our 
models are real primitives, and not degraded races, and there 
is all the difference in the world. The real savage is very 
frequently a person with unexpected virtues and cleverness, 
and a moral and spiritual code which is found to be admir- 
ably suited to his surroundings. We discovered this of the 
Australian native, through Messrs. Spencer & Gillen's books, 
to which we referred in Part I. In this book we have drawn 
on an admirable account of a gifted people, the Akikiiyu of 
British East Africa, given in a book by Mr. and Mrs. Rout- 
ledge, which we recommend to our readers. 

These people are quite different from those tribes who, 
often by contact with the worst sides of our civiUzation, have 
become hangers-on, and so have fallen from high estate. 
Frequently it is this latter type which is first thought of, 
so we implore our readers to clear their minds of any such 
misconception, and thiijk of early man as being the child of 
mankmd, on the threshold of the world's life, with all that 
it held before him, testing its possibilities, and trying con- 
clusions with it. 

Again, there is the effect of emigration to be considered. 
To-day, if a tramp determines that instead of starving here, 



he will go to America, and make his fortune, he is a pluckier 
type than the tramp he leaves behind, and he is of more use 
to America, than the one remaining here is to us. 

The development of man has depended on the struggle 
for existence, and the quality of the fight which he puts up 
against his difficulties. The more virile types which a country 
possesses, the greater progress it will make. 

Our early immigrants, the Mediterranean men, the Bronze 
Age men, the Brythons, and Belgae, of whom we shall tell 
in this book, were of great value to our country, and all 
played their part in its development. 

We must try to appreciate this idea of movement and 
energy. We must think of man as a worrying individual, 
consumed by curiosity, and always trying experiments ; 
faihng dismally and losing heart ; trying again, and meeting 
with some little success which spurs him on. His inspirations 
is like the pale flame of the will-o'-the-wisp, sometimes it 
leaps up and bums brightly, at others dies down, but always 
it eludes him, and never can be grasped. If you come to 
think about it, this is just as it should be, because perfection 
is finality. 

We should like to thank Mr. Reginald Smith, F.S.A., 
Deputy-Keeper of the Department of British and Mediseval 
Antiquities at the British Museum, for help given to us while 
we were making our drawings, and also for reading through 
our MS. and making many suggestions which we feel have 
added to the value of the book. 

Our thanks are also due to our publisher, Mr. Harry 
Batsford, and to Mr. A. E. Doyle, who have been of constant 
a'^sistance, and many other friends who have helped. Mr. 
R. E. Webb discovered the Pole Lathe (Fig. 78), and Mr. 
R. A. Norris the Potter's Wheel (Fig. 87). 


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August 1922. 


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he will go to America, and make his fortune, he is a pluckier 
type than the tramp he leaves behind, and he is of more use 
to America, than the one remaining here is to us. 

The development of man has depended on the struggle 
for existence, and the quality of the fight which he puts up 
against his difi&culties. The more virile types which a country 
possesses, the greater progress it will make. 

Our early immigrants, the Mediterranean men, the Bronze 
Age men, the Brythons, and Belgae, of whom we shall tell 
in this book, were of great value to our country, and all 
played their part in its development. 

We must try to appreciate this idea of movement and 
energy. We must think of man as a worrying individual, 
consumed by curiosity, and always trying experiments ; 
failing dismally and losing heart ; trying again, and meeting 
with some little success which spurs him on. His inspirations 
is like the pale flame of the will-o'-the-wisp, sometimes it 
leaps up and bums brightly, at others dies down, but always 
it eludes him, and never can be grasped. If you come to 
think about it, this is just as it should be, because perfection 
is finality. 

We should like to thank Mr. Reginald Smith, F.S.A., 
Deputy-Keeper of the Department of British and Mediaeval 
Antiquities at the British Museum, for help given to us while 
we were making our drawings, and also for reading through 
our MS. and making many suggestions which we feel have 
added to the value of the book. 

Our thanks are also due to our publisher, Mr. Harry 
Batsford, and to Mr. A. E. Do^de, who have been of constant 
assistance, and many other friends who have helped. Mr. 
R. E. Webb discovered the Pole Lathe (Fig. 78). and Mr. 
R. A. Norris the Potter's Wheel (Fig. 87). 


BerkhamsteDj Herts, 
August 1922. 













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Before the New Stone Age 

BEFORE we begin with the doings of the men of the 
NeoUthic or New Stone Age, it may be as well to 
give our readers a reminder of the periods which are 
associated with the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age with which 
we dealt in Part I. 

We started with the period of the River Drift, so called 
because of the flint implements found in the gravels deposited 
by rivers. Man lived on the banks of the Thames up to 
Oxford ; along the Lea to the Dunstable area ; around the 
Solent and Avon in Hampshire, and the Wey at Farnham, 
and on an area in E. Angha, bounded by Thetford, Hoxne, 
Bury St. Edmunds, Mildenhall, and Lakenheath. 

Then we came to a period when men hved in caves, like 
Kent's Cavern and Brixham Cave, N. and S. of Tor Bay, 
Wookey Hole in Somerset, Cresswell Caves in Derbyshire, 
and others in Wales. 

Finally we saw how, at the end of the Old Stone Age, man 
seemed to have been drawn, or driven, to the water. The 
people, called Azilian, after Mas d'Azil (France), lived on 
great rafts anchored in the middle of lakes, as at Magle- 
mose, Denmark. At Oban in Scotland, Azilian deposits were 
found in a cave opening on to a seabeach. This Azilian 
A # 


civilization is the first of which we have any evidence in 
Scotland during the Old Stone Age, and we must not forget 
that the Northern part of Great Britain was covered with ice 
during the Glacial periods, and probably was too bleak and 
desolate in the Interglacial periods to attract settlers, until 
the ice had finally retreated in early Neolithic times. France 
was always ahead of us in civilization, because the greater part 
of it was never glaciated. 

At Oban were found the bones of large sea fish, red deer, 
goat, pig, and many other animals, and the life led there must 
have resembled that which we trace in the Kitchen Middens on 
the Danish coast. These middens are of the greatest interest, 
because they belong mostly to the earliest Neolithic period, 
and it is here that we shall start this, Part II. of our series. 

The Kitchen Midden People 

A midden is a rubbish heap, and in Denmark these mounds 
are sometimes lOO yards long, by 50 wide, by i high, and were 
formed of the refuse of the meals and life of prehistoric man. 
They are labelled there with the splendid name of Kjokken- 
moddinger, and are largely formed of oyster shells, with the 
bones of stag, roe-deer, and wild boar. The long bones have 
been cracked to extract the marrow. The people do not 
appear to have grown any crops, or domesticated any animals, 
except the dog, so they had not made any great advances 
on the civiUzation of the Old Stone Age. It must have been 
the pleasant loafing life of the beach-comber. The sea when 
it is angry casts up all kinds of edible flotsam, and in kindlier 
mood, at low tide, early Neolithic man could hunt over the 
3fOcks, as we do to-day during our summer holidays, and find 
lobster and crab, oyster and mussel, prawns and shrimps, and 
the humble winkle. 

We find the remains of similar people, and their shell heaps, 
m different parts of the British Isles, and at the British 
Museum, in the Prehistoric Room, are flints from the Castle 
Hill at Hastings. These people possessed dug-out canoes, 
or skin-covered boats, with which to go fishing, and used 
harpoons like the Old Stone Age men. It may well be 
that, as their flint implements were rough and not 
very effective, they were forced to the seaside by the 
encroaching forests. As the weather improved, after the 



New Stone 

Danish Midden 

Ice Ages, the trees grew, and man could 
not as yet make suflScient clearings in 
which to start agriculture. 

The evidence that we can gain, points 
to this dim beginning of the Neolithic 
period, some 7000 to 10,000 years ago, 
as a time when the world was gathering 
its forces. The Old Stone Age cul- 

i minated in the wonderful flint work of 

1 Solutre, and the Magdalenian paintings ; 

\ after that came decline. The old hun- 

\ ters followed in the track of the Mam- 
moth and the Reindeer, and reached 
northern latitudes, where their successors 
of to-day, the Eskimo, live. They left 
behind them the less virile types, and 
the early midden people lived, one thinks, in rather a kitchen 
atmosphere without the wit to mend their ways. 

Then wise men came out of the East, and later we shall 
try to show how we in England were aSected by these 
migrations. There were kings in Egypt as early as 4500 B.C., 
and the Mediterranean, which had seen the Cro-Magnon, 
and Grimaldi men, in the Old Stone Age, was to see these 
others who, coming from the East, or South-East, in the New 
Stone Age, were to press along to the cry of " Westward Ho," 
and build up new civiUzations. 

Whether the midden people died out, or were stimulated by 
these new-comers we cannot be sure. They had domesticated 
the dog, and it may have occurred to them to do the same with 
other animals, and so save themselves the trouble of hunting. 
This we find is the next step ; man became a herdsman, 
and had flocks to tend. This added to his responsibilities ; 
while as hunter, or beach-comber, his cares were few, he must 
have found that with possessions his troubles began. It was 
necessary to find pasture for the little flock, and in the winter, 
no matter how hard the times were, he must keep alive some 
few to carry on the strain ; the animals needed guarding at 
night ; better pots and pans were necessary for storing milk, 
and in a hundred ways he was moved to bestir and adapt 
himself to the new conditions which arose out of becoming a 
man of property. 

We will now turn to the geographical conditions which 




confronted Neolithic man in England, and the bearing which 
these had on his mode of living, and the necessity that he 
was under of finding pasture for his flocks. 
^ In the Old Stone Age, men walked across dry land where 
the Straits of Dover are now (see p. 13, Pt. I.) ; but as the 
waters rose after the last Ice Age, the isthmus across got smaller 
and smaller, until England was completely severed. It is 
probable that this did not occur until some time after the 
beginning of the New Stone Age, and even then the Channel 
would not have been so wide as it is now for a long time. 
This was, and still is, the great Gate into England ; here have 
passed men of the Old and New Stone Ages, Iberians, Goidels, 
Brythons, Belgae and Romans, Saxons, Danes, and Normans. 
There have been, and are to-day, other routes, but none that 
can compare with the southern end of WatUng Street. 

We have drawn our map (Fig. 3) because we want our 
readers to bear in mind the physical characteristics of England ; 
its shape ; its mountains and rivers ; where are the watersheds 
and the marshy ground. As we are going to add to this map, 
in each part of the series, we have drawn an England as we 
know it now, but readers will remember that constant 
alteration has brought it to its present shape. Thanet has 
been an island, and the Lympne Flats under water. The 
Wash and Fens were unreclaimed, and the East Coast by 
Dunwich has been steadily eaten away ; there have been altera- 
tions along the South Coast and by the Isle of Wight. 

In the early Neolithic days, men could stand in Gaul and 
look across to Kent, and say, " There is another land there 
like our own ; there also can we walk dry foot on the hills, 
and find pasture for our beasts. The grass is growing brown 
here, let us go and see what the country is like." 

On our map (Fig. 3) we have shown the chalk, and it 
will be noticed how closely Neolithic man kept to it. We 
might call them the Men of the Rolling Downs. 

A drought in these early days would have led to great 
migrations, and the pressure from behind have forced the 
men on the coast to make the great adventure. The Old 
Testament contains the finest pictures of nomadic herdsmen. 
In Genesis xiii. we read how Abram and Lot returned out of 
Egypt, and there was strife between their herdsmen, because 
the land was not able to bear them, and Abram said to Lot, 
" Is not the whole land before thee ? Separate thyself, I 


New Stone 


pray thee, from me : if thou wilt take the left hand, then I 
will go to the right." 

When the first Neolithic men arrived here, they would 
have found excellent pasture then, as now, on the Downs, 
and flint for their tools. They would have moved along the 
line of the old road later called the Pilgrims' Way, on the 
escarpment of the North Downs, secure from wolf or man. 
We find to-day traces of Neolithic man on this road ; there 
is Kitscoty to the N.W. of Maidstone ; the Coldrum monu- 
ment to the W. on the other side of the Medway ; the pit- 
dwellings in Rose Wood near Ightham, — all dating from the 
New Stone Age. NeoHthic man introduced sheep, goats, 
pigs, and cattle (Bos longifrons), like the small black Welsh 
cattle. These necessitated enclosures; so we find along the\ 
trackways on the Downs a regular system of earthworks 
where men, and cattle, could be secure against attack. 

It is a curious fact that nearly all the Neolithic camps are 
above the 500 feet contour line ; Ave have shaded the parts 
below this on our map. There was, of course, a reason for 
this ; not only was pasture better on the Downs, but there 
were fewer trees. The country was far more wooded than it 
is now, and man had not as yet the implements with which 
to make extensive clearings in the forests. It is a mistake, 
however, to think of these as dense tropical jungles, because 
the climate then was temperate, as it is now. The un- 
drained country would have been a more formidable obstacle 
than the forests, and places like the Sussex Weald all sticky 
clay. The forests were full of wild animals ; there was 
the Irish elk and the wild ox (aurochs), bears and beavers, 
wild cats and red deer, wild boars and the wolf, and Neolithic / 
man hunted these with dogs. 

Later and more adventurous immigrants seem to have 
coasted round until they came to the chalk at Eastbourne. 
They would have set out in their dug-out canoes, as Fig. 6, 
and some of these have been found as long as 50 feet. On the 
South Downs again are earthworks and tumuli, linked up 
by trackways leading to Stonehenge. Others came in at the 
Wash, which in these days extended to where the chalk is shown 
on our map, and here Icknield Way goes S. to the Goring Gap 
on the Thames, and then by way of the Berkshire Downs again 
to Stonehenge. Later on Maiden Castle, near Dorchester, and 
its connection with the trackways, points to traffic and trade by 



New Stone 

Fig. 6. — Dug-out Canoe. 

sea. The range of Neolithic man seems to have been the Downs, 
the Blackdown Hills to Devon and Cornwall, the Mendips, the 
Cotswolds to the Northampton Heights, the South Pennines 
and Lincolnshire Hills, the Yorkshire Wolds and Moors, and 
the Glamorgan Hills, and N. and W. of Scotland, and all 
these parts are connected by trackways which converge on 
Salisbury Plain and Stonehenge, which appears to have been 
the richest part of England in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, 
and the seat of such spiritual and civil government as there was. 

It should be noted that the trackways follow the water- 
sheds, and so avoid the crossing of rivers — a serious obstacle 
to flocks and herds. On the other hand, the great river 
valleys have formed avenues of approach for immigrants 
into the country, and the fact that so many of these are on 
the East Coast, has rendered us peculiarly liable to invasion 
on that side. The tide runs up the Humber and Ouse nearly 
to York ; up the Trent just beyond Gainsborough, and the 
Thames to Teddington. 

We must think, then, of a gradual penetration of the country, 
in Neolithic times, along the various routes we have indicated, 
which in the end became estabUshed traffic lines because of 
their convenience. The first rough stockades and earth- 
works on the trackways would have developed as time went 
on into the hill forts we find to-day. In the later days 
there must have been a more ordered system of government 
than any tribal law which had gone before. This is forced 
on us by the size of the works which these people carried out, 



and which could only have been possible to a people content 
to accept some form of control. 

We must bear in mind that when we talk of the NeoUthic 
period, we mean a state of existence which is supposed to 
have lasted in this country not less than 3000 years 
and probably longer, that is, from about 5000 or even 
8000 B.C. to 2000 B.C., and it may have started considerably 
earher. To reahze what a very long time this was, we must 
remember that only 1922 years have elapsed since the birth 
of Christ to our own days. Neolithic man, then, had plenty 
of time for the gradual beginnings which led up to the civiliza- 
tion of the hill forts of the trackways. Boys and girls should 
endeavour to see these. In our part of the world there is 
Icknield Way, with a contour camp on Beacon Hill, the 
Maiden's Bower, and Totternhoe. From Oxford you can take 
a 'bus to Wantage, the birthplace of Alfred, and from there 
climb on to the Ridgeway which runs along the Berkshire 
Downs. Cissbury is close to Worthing, and Maiden Castle 
not far from Weymouth, and every one should see Stone- 
hen ge. There is no more inspiring thing to do than walk 
along these trackways, which were old roads before the dawn 
of History as it is generally understood. If the day is hot, 
rest for a Uttle while under a thorn, and then, perhaps, if you 
can dream dreams, and see visions, you may be able to join 
in spirit a party of Neolithic hunters or herdsmen journeying 
from fort to fort. It will be much more amusing than reading 
books, yet give your History a new meaning. 

European Races 

Perhaps, before we examine the works of Neolithic man in 
more detail, it will be as well to try and find out something 
about him, and the European Races during the Neolithic, 
Bronze, and Early Iron Ages. We can refer to ourselves as 
Anglo-Saxons or Britons, and yet be very wide of the mark. 
Assuming that we were cruising over Great Britain in an 
airplane, we could in a few days cover the length and breadth 
of the land, and if we kept our eyes open when we landed, we 
should find very varying types in our own country, except 
perhaps in the industrial areas which are pitiful conglomera- 
tions of misery. 

In parts of Essex, and the South Midlands and Chilterns ; 


New Stone 

Fig. 7, — Mediterranean or Iberian Man. 

on the hills to the W. of 
the Severn in Worces- 
tershire, Shropshire, and 
Herefordshire ; in Rom- 
ney Marsh, the Weald, 
and the Isle of Ely, we 
should find a large pro- 
portion of dark-haired 
people with long heads, 
and the explanation of 
this is, that as these 
parts were off the main 
lines of Saxon immigra- 
tion, the old British 
blood has lingered on. 
The Saxons penetrated 
into the country on the 
Line of the Thames, and 
this element is strong in 
Berkshire, Oxfordshire, 
Hampshire, Sussex, and up the Thames Valley to the Cotswolds; 
here you will find fair people with blue eyes. In Leicestershire 
and Lincolnshire are Danish types with long faces, and heads 
rather high behind ; high cheek-bones, and well-formed noses ; 
they appear to have driven the AngUans to the Derbyshire 
hills in olden days. In Yorkshire we should find a typically 
English people ; shrewd, vigorous, and obstinate ; successful 
in business ; hard-headed and practical, yet with a great 
love of music. In the Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides, and 
parts of Caithness are splendid men of Norwegian descent. 
In the Highlands a GaeUc stock, quick-tempered and emo- 
tional ; in the Lowlands, and the eastern coast -lands, a 
frugal hard-working people descended from Angles, Danes, 
and immigrants from the E. 

It is obvious, then, that our own island provides us with 
some very fair samples of the European races, and if we are 
to understand our own history, or must discover where these 
types have come from, this means crossing to the mainland. 

The European Races have been divided into three large 
families or groups. The Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean, 
and the history of Europe is a recital of the migrations 
and minglings of these types. Nordic means Northern, and 



this type is sometimes 
called Teutonic ; these 
people came from the 
steppe region to the 
N. of the mountains 
between Europe, and 
Asia. As the climate 
improved after the last 
Ice Age this became 
forest. The people 
were tall and strong- 
boned, with fair hair, 
and blue eyes, and they 
were long-headed. 

The Alpine people 
came from the moun- 
tain zone of Europe ; 
they were thick-set, 
and round-headed. 

The Mediterranean 
or Iberian men came 
from the coast-lands 
of that sea ; they were 
dark, long - headed, 
with oval faces and 
aquiline noses ; of middle height, not more than 5 feet 
6 inches, and the women shorter and not very robust. 

The Nordic and Mediterranean types were probably 
descendants of the later long-headed people of the Old Stone 
Age, and the Alpine later arrivals from the E. 

It is to the Mediterranean stock that we must look for the 
first of the Neolithic people in this country. It is thought 
that working along the coast-lands of the W. part of the 
Mediterranean they struck up through the Carcassone Gap 
between the Pyrennes and the Cevennes, at i (Fig. 64), and 
thence by way of 2, 3, through the W. of France until they 
came to Brittany and Normandy, then worked along the 
coast until they came to where the Straits of Dover now 
are. Remember this was not done in a day, or many days, 
but was a movement lasting for hundreds of years. 

The later Mediterranean or Iberian people were the 
builders of the Megalithic monuments ; the menhirs, dolmens, 


Fig. 8. — Alpine or Celtic Man. 


New Stone 

and chambered barrows 
which culminated in 
Stonehenge, and spread 
from India, across to 
W. Europe and our own 
land. Megalithic is de- 
rived from two Greek 
words, megas, great, and 
lithos, stone, and its most 
distinctive contribution 
to the art of building 
was the evolution of the 
lintel ; in this detail it 
was allied to Egyptian 
and Greek building. 
Stonehenge is the tri- 
umph of the lintel, and 
the general assumption 
is that it dates from 
the end of the Neo- 
lithic, or the beginning 
of the Bronze Age. 

These Neolithic dol- 
men builders retreated before the round-headed Bronze men, 
who seem to have come from the Eastern Mediterranean, 
through Gaul to Britain. They were stalwart, dark, broad- 
headed men, and arrived here about 2000 B.C. It is 
thought that these earliest round-heads were not Goidels, 
and we will explain this later. It is quite possible that they 
may have had something to do with megalithic building, as 
they associated with the Neolithic long-heads ; we know this, 
because in the round barrows, which are of Bronze Age, round- 
and long-heads are found buried together. The Bronze men 
brought with them their flat bronze celts, as Fig. 46, and if 
at the first they could not manufacture these they did obtain 
them by trade. 

About the same time the "Beaker" people arrived on the 
N, and E. coasts. They are called " Beaker " because of a 
potter^' drinking- vessel, as ( i ) Fig. 62, which they used. They 
did not use bronze, or introduce it. They came from around 
Kiev on the Dnieper (7, Fig. 64), to the S. of the Pinsk 
Marshes, and then on the line 8, 9, 10, not in a month or a 


Fig. 9. —The Nordic Man. 


year, but gradually, as their numbers increased and they were 
forced to find new territory — in fact, just as men in recent days 
have gone to America to make their fortunes. These Beaker 
men were a mixture of Alpine and Nordic, combining the 
broad heads of the Alpine with the fair colouring, strength 
and length of bone of the Nordic. They were tall and strong- 

About this time we are able to find out that the conditions 
of life were becoming easier. The people lived longer lives, 
they were bigger than in NeoUthic times, and there was less 
difference between the size of men and women. 

The Coming of the Celts 

At a later day, perhaps, about 700 to 500 b.c, the first of 
the Goidels, Gaels, or Celts arrived ; they were an Aryan- 
speaking people who burned their dead. Here we might 
explain what is meant by the Aryan-speaking peoples, because 
the spread of this language is one of the wonderful things 
in the world's history, like the Magdalenian painting. The 
Aryan language is also described as being Indo-European, 
Indo-Iranian, and Indo-Germanic. Towards the end of the 
eighteenth century, similarities were noticed in the construction 
of languages seemingly so different as Sanscrit, Greek, Latin, 
German, and Celtic, and later all the European languages, 
except Turkish, Finnic, and one or two others, were added, 
with some modern Indian languages, to a group which has 
been derived from this primitive Aryan tongue. This does 
not mean that all the millions of Aryan-speaking people to- 
day are descended from Aryan stock ; what it does point to 
is some wonderful idea which spread across Europe like a 
flame burning dry grass. 

The exact spot where the original Aryans lived is still a 
matter of debate : one idea is that it was in South Russia or 
Hungary ; another, on the Iranian plateau to the S.E. of 
the Caspian Sea. From there the language spread S.E. 
across the Indus into India. The route to Europe may have 
been to the E. of the Caspian Sea, and then W. across the 
Volga, Don, and Dnieper, to 7 (Fig. 64), whence came the 
Beaker people. Or N.W. from the Iranian plateau, and S. 
of the Black Sea into Asia Minor and the ^gean. Now 



New Stone 

Fig. io. — Flint Miners. 

language does not spread as a fashion, but because it is the 
vehicle of thought embodying a dominating idea. 

The diffusion of the Aryan language coincided with great 
changes and migrations of the European peoples. The old 
Neolithic civilization had carried men forward as a tribe, 
and in a state which did not offer much opportunity to the 
individual While the pioneer work was being done, the 
adventurous men had plenty to occupy them, and then may 
have become restless as conditions became more settled, and 
have seized power, not necessarily from a selfish point of view, 



but to satisfy wider ambitions and to obtain 
more movement and colour in life. We come 
to the Age of Heroes. The chieftain, or patri- 
arch of the tribe, has to give way to the hero, 
who welds it into a nation and becomes a king. 
Again it may have been the work of a great 
, prophet with some new message for the souls 
of men, and this view is borne out by the 
pregnant fact that man now begins to burn 
his dead instead of burying them. 

These Goidels, the first of the Celtic, Aryan- 
speaking people to reach our shores, were the 
forerunners of the Irish, Manx, and Highlanders. 
About 450 B.C. the Brythons, or Britons, 
began to arrive. They were long-headed, and 
the forerunners of the Welsh, Cornish, and 
Breton peoples. They were not unlike the later 
Anglo-Saxons, men of strong build and fair hair, 

horn Implement, and may have arisen from a minghng of Alpine 
and Nordic types. They introduced iron into 

•S.E. Britain, and drove the Bronze civilization into the W. 

and Ireland. Theirs was the Kymric form of the Celtic 


About 200 B.C. came the Belgae, of the same extraction 

as the Brythons, and Caesar found them in the possession of 

the S.E. districts. 

Fig. II. — Deer 

Flint Implements 

Having now given an outline sketch of 
-the Various peoples we shall meet with in 
this book, we will go back to the first of 
these, the men of the New Stone Age. We 
will examine first their implements, and 
then later consider the work they did with 
these tools. These Neolithic implements 
are not necessarily of polished stone, as 
some people seem to think. Flint was still 
chipped as in the Old Stone Age : some- 
times it was chipped and ground, or polished 
in parts ; sometimes completely so. We 
«an only give a few of the more typical 


Fig. 12. — Deer- 
horn Implement. 


New Stone 

Fig. 13. — Flint Flake and Core. 

implements, and we strongly 
recommend our readers to 
pay a visit to the Prehis- 
toric Room of the British 
Museum, where the endless 
variety of the implements 
can be studied in detail. 
Neolithic implements are 
found on the surface of the 
ground or just under it, 
and are not dug out of 
gravel as those of the Old 
Stone Age are. 

When our readers pass 
on to the standard text- 
books of archaeology, they 
will be meeting constantly 
such terms as nucleus or 
core, flake, and bulb of 
percussion. It may b'e as 
well to explain these. \!Flint 
is dug out of the chalk in 
separate blocks or nodules complete in themselves ; not cut 
out of a mass, as in the case of stone and rock. At Cissbury 
near Worthing, and Grimes' Graves near Brandon in Norfolk, 
the pits formed by the early miners to obtain their flints 
have been discovered, and it is thought the implements were 
roughly finished here for export. They used deer-horn picks, 
and shoulder-blades as shovels, as Fig. 10. These can be seen 
in the Prehistoric Room at the British Museum, with horn 
punches and chisels, as Figs. 11 and 12. The flints have a 
white skin called the crust, and the old men often left part 
of this on the implement. Remember they had not any metal 
hammers, and that a rounded pebble was used instead. The 
first step was to knock off the top of the nodule, so as to 
provide a flat table at A, Fig. 13. This tabular surface was 
held nearly at a right angle, and the flaker with his pebble 
struck a sharp blow a little back from the edge at the arrows, 
on the line of the intended fracture. By long practice he 
knew exactly the position and force of the blow necessary 
to detach the flake ; it is obvious that he might obtain one 
of triangular section from the left-hand arrow as at B ; this 



would have a mid-rib up its centre, and two keen cutting 
edges, and be useful as a knife or lance-head. From the 
right-hand arrow he would obtain a flake with two ribs up 
the middle ; it was this type of flake, cut up into short lengths, 
which was used until recent days for flint-lock guns, and 
strike-a-hghts. It is becoming increasingly difficult, in these 
mechanical days, to appreciate the manual dexterity of the 
old workers, who were content to regard the hand as the most 
wonderful tool of all. Try and make a flint implement your- 
self, but wear motor goggles to safeguard your eyes, and you 
will leave off with a new respect for these old handicraftsmen. 

The block from which the flakes are struck off is the 
nucleus or core, and in the Prehistoric Room in Table Case A, 
you can see one with all the flakes replaced. In the Gallery 
over are cores from France called, by the peasants who find 
them, livres de beurre, or pounds of butter. 

Flint is a curious material, intensely hard, it is yet rather 
elastic. When it is struck by the hammer-stone, the blow 
detaches the flake with part of a cone under the point of 
impact ; this is the bulb of percussion, and is generally 
regarded as a sign of human work on a flint. The implements 
resolve themselves into two types. First these made from 
the core itself, the flakes being removed to give the desired 
shape. Naturally the larger implements, like the hand -axes 
in Part I., and the celts, axes, and hammers, in this part are 
shaped cores. In the other type flakes were struck off the 
core and were used for knives, lance and arrow heads. 

Fig. 14. — Hafting of Flint Implements. 


New Stone 

Fig. 15. — Stone Axes and Hammers. 

scrapers, borers, and all the little odd tools which would have 
been so useful. 

Fig. 14 shows a few typical implements, and the way they 
were hafted or had handles fitted. A is the celt, or axe, 
and is the Neolithic descendant of the hand-axe of the Old 
Stone Age. Celts have been found varying from an inch or so 
long up to 15 inches or 16 inches, and were the most important 
implements of Neolithic man. They were driven into the 
head of a wooden handle as at A, and then wedged from the 
top. Sometimes the celt was fixed into a deer-horn socket 
driven into the wood. With celts trees were cut down and 
all the rough carpentry done. The stone celt or axe was 
the forerunner of the bronze celt, and led to the iron axe 
which has been one of the most useful tools to man through- 
out the ages. A, Fig. 14, shows a polished stone celt. These 
at first were chipped out of flint. Then the cutting edge was 
ground, and finally the whole celt polished. B, Fig. 14, shows 
a rougher, unpolished type, hafted at right angles to the 
handle for use as an adze ; this would have been used like a 
hoe to chop towards the foot, and must have been very useful 
in making dug-out canoes. Rougher stones mounted in this 
way would have been used as hoes for agriculture. Neolithic 
man cultivated the terraces or lynchets near their encamp* 
B 17 


ments, as Fig. 2. For this method of hafting any branched 
stick could be used, and the flint bound on with raw-hide 
thongs. C, Fig. 14, shows how a chisel-shaped flake could 
be mounted, and D a scraper. Scrapers were as useful and 
general in the New, as the Old Stone Age, and probably 
served to remove the fat from skins and to scrape wood. A 
very usual shape was that of an oyster-shell ; the Eskimo use 
these, and mount them in morse — ivory handles, and their 
flaying knifes are like the thin oval flakes of greenstone found 
in Scotland, and called Picts' knives. A, Fig. 15, shows a 
polished stone celt hafted at right angles for use as an adze, B 
is a stone axe with double edge, and C a stone hammer. In 
thinking of how these were made we must remember the 
extraordinary patience of the savage. Lafitau, in Masurs des 
Sauvages AmSricatns, 1724, says that a North American 
Indian would spend all the leisure of his life in making one 
stone tomahawk, and we may, or may not, consider that a 
waste of time. 

The Neolithic implement maker used volcanic rocks for his 
axes, and after roughly trimming these to shape, finished 
by grinding the axe on a grindstone, not one that turns round, 
but by rubbing the axe on a stone, as the carpenter sharpens 
his plane iron. The boring of the hole was done last, with a 
stick, or hollow bone, and sand and water. Any sand hard 
enough to scratch the stone would cut the hole in time. The 
drill could have been turned with a bow, as Fig. 47, Part I. 
Odysseus drills out the eye of the Cyclops by means of a stake 
with a leather thong around it, " like a shipwright boring 

Some of the stone axes have one edge and a rounded head, 
and may have been used for splitting wood, by hammering 
the head with a wooden mallet. Others have a purposely 
blunted edge, as if for use as battle-axes, with less chance of 
cutting the wielder, and just as much power to damage the 
enemy. Amusing traditions have gathered around the old 
stone celts ; the country people in the past thought they were 
thunderbolts. Stone hammers were known in Scotland, 
until the end of the eighteenth century, as Purgatory 
Hammers, and were supposed to have been buried with the 
dead, so that they could hammer on the gates of Purgatory, 
till the heavenly janitor appeared. Another point to be 
remembered, and one which we have so often emphasized, is 



New Stone 

that stone continued to be 
used after the advent of 
bronze. Sir William Wilde, 
writing in the Catalogue of 
Stone Antiquities in the Royal 
Irish AcademyMuseum, stated, 
in the middle of the nineteenth 
century, that stone hammers 
and anvils were used by Irish 
smiths and tinkers, until about 
that time. Again, Sir John 
Evans, in Ancient Stone Im- 
plements, published in 1872, 
says that up till that time 
flints were sold in country 
shops for use with steel to 
make fire. Leaving the larger 
implements, we can turn to 
the lance, javelin, and arrow 
heads, and the many things 
which were made out of the 
flakes. We have seen by 
Fig. 13 how the fiaker went 
to work. Long flakes up to 8 
and inches were possible, 

and these were used for lance-heads ; shorter ones for javelins 
and arrows ; thicker and rougher flakes for scrapers. Having 
obtained the flakes, the maker then proceeded to trim these into 
the desired shape, by what the archaeologists call secondary 
flaking. Some of this, as in the Danish specimen, m Case 134 
ii! the gallery of the Prehistoric Room at the British Museum, 
is rippled along the edge of the implement in a most delightful 
way. Opinions are divided as to how this secondary flaking 
was done. A flint punch, or fabricator, may have been used ; 
or the flake held flat, face uppermost on an anvil stone, may 
have been trimmed by hammering tiny flakes off the edge 
with a hammer-stone. The Eskimo place the flake over a 
slight hollow in a log, and then press an ivory tool which 
spalls off small flakes. Capt. John Smith, writing in 1606 of the 
Indians of Virginia, said, " His arrow-head he maketh quickly 
with a little bone, which he ever weareth at his bracert (guard 
on wrist against bow-string), of any splint of stone or glasse 


Fig. 16. — Flint Spear and 
Arrow Heads. 

Fig. 17. — Pit Dwelling. 

in the form of a heart, and these they glew to the end of their 
arrowes. With the sinewes of deer and the tops of deer's 
horns boiled to a jelly, they make a glew which will not dissolve 
in water." This means a form of mounting as Fig. 16. The 
arrow-heads must have called for wonderful handling when 
being made. As with the Celts, tradition has gathered round 
the arrow-heads, which, until quite recent times, was called 
elf-darts by the country people, who thought that the fairies 
used them to injure cattle. 


Having seen something of the tools which Neolithic man 
possessed, we can pass on to the work he did with these, and 
will begin with the houses he built. In Fig. 5 very simple 
huts are shown which resemble those of the Old Stone Age 
shown in Fig. 59, Part I. It is a type which has always been 
used by primitive man, and we can remember charcoal 
burners in Kent who housed themselves in this way. 
This would be the hut, of what is called the hut circle, 
that is, the shallow depressions which are found in Hayes 
Common in Kent, and many other parts of the country. 
The hole which remains now is dished out like a saucer, 
because in the time which has passed the outer edges 
have been trodden down and washed down by the rain. 
Originally the hole was dug out and the ground heaped up 
around ; this would have given headroom inside, and have 



New Stone 

taken the place of the 
vertical walls that 
came later on. A 
central roof-tree sup- 
ported the sapUngs at 
the top, which, resting 
on the bank at the' 
foot, formed the roof. 
A rough thatch com- 
pleted the whole. Very 
much deeper pit dwell- 
ings were formed, as 
Fig. 17, in the same 
way, and these suggest 

that/fear prompted the form of their construction. It is 
obvious that this type would not have been very noticeable to 
prowling enemy bands, and the wolf would have hesitated to 
leap down into such a tra p . J The pit dwelhngs are thought 
to be earlier than the shallower huts, and would only have 
been possible in a dry soil ; this obtained, ithey would have been 
warm in winter and cool in summerj The cooking hearths, 
as on Hayes Common, often took the form of small pits out- 
side the huts. A fire was made in these with large stones in 
it, and the ashes being raked on one side, the carcase was 

Fig. 18.— Plan of Hut. 


Fig. 19.— Neolithic Hut. 


placed in the pit and covered over, when the heat of the stones 
turned the pit into an oven and cooked the meat. It is very 
probable that the accidental introduction of ore with the 
fuel into one of these hearths led the way to metal smelting. 
The floors of the huts would have been covered with bracken, 
like straw in a stable, and carpet-sweepers were not needed. 

Fig. 1 8 shows the plan, and Fig. 19 the outside of an inter- 
esting development from Grimspound, Hambledon, Dart- 
moor. Here are the remains of twenty-four huts, surrounded 
by a double wall enclosing about 4 acres ; quite a little village. 
The^oo^g]^f the huts was on the same principle as Fig. 17, 
but of course all this has long since gone. The plan is interest- 
ing because the hut has now developed a porch or outer 
parlour at A, which must have added to the comfort of the 
inhabitants ; at night it may have been used as a stable. 
-"^he house is rising up out of the ground, and has rough vertical 
walls ; at the entrance the builders selected upright stones 
for the door jambs, which are covered with a stone lintel ; 
this is an important detail and links the house up with Stone- 
henge, as we shall see later. /The hut is about 1 1 feet diameter 
inside, with an inside hearth for the fire at C, and a cooking- 
hole at E ; there is a raised dais at D paved with fiat stones, 
about 8 inches higher than the general floor. Here the family 
could sit on bracken and fur rugs in great comfort. The 

central roof-tree, sup- 
ported on a stone at B, 
would have been used, 
like the pole in an army 
bell-tent, to hang things 
on. As late as Caesar's 
time the Gauls squatted 
in straw around a low 
table, and tore their 
food like animals, using 
their fingers and only oc- 
casionally their knives. 
Fhnt thumb-scrapers 
found in the Dartmoor 
huts suggest skin cloth- 
ing ; though weaving 
appears to have been 
started in the Swiss lake 

Fig. 20. — Strike-a-light. 


New Stone 

Fig. 21,— Flint Sickle. 

dwellings in Neolithic times, it is doubtful if it started here 
till the Bronze Age. Very few ornaments have been found 
in long barrows. 

Skin clothing does not necessarily mean that Neolithic 
men only wore the rough pelts of animals ; we have seen in 
Pt. I. how the women of the Old Stone Age could make very 
good bone needles, and a visit to the Ethnographical Gallery, at 
the British Museum, will show us what beautiful skin garments 
the Eskimo can make. Neolithic garments may not have 
been quite as well made as these, and in Fig. 56 we have shown 
the man and woman of this period, on the left of the drawing, 
in a simpler type of clothing. The Picts, who were de- 
scendants of the Neolithic men, tattooed themselves, so this 
method of decoration may have gone back to the New Stone 




Fig. 22. — Grinding Corn. 

Fig. 20 shows a way that the Neolithic woman had of making 
fire ; a piece of flint was used, in conjunction with a lump of 
iron pyrites, as a strike-a-light. Pyrites is found in the lower 
chalk beds, and may first have been used as a hammer-stone 
on flint, when the resulting sparks would have suggested its 
use as Fig. 20. The sparks falling on dry moss could be 
blown into flame. Very beautiful flint knives, as Fig. 2 1 , have 
been found, and it is thought that these were used as sickles. 
The reaper would have gathered the ears of the corn in one 
hand, and cut these off as shown. We have already referred 
to the lynchets found on the Downs which are supposed to 
have been cultivation terraces. When the corn was cut the 
threshing would have been a very simple business, and then 
came the grinding into flour. Fig. 22 shows a saddle-back 
quern : the grain was placed on this, in the hollow made by 
use, and the upper stone pushed to and fro until the com 
became flour. Neolithic man would hardly have been able to 
obtain yeast, and probably his bread was unleavened, or the 
flour mixed with honey and baked into biscuits. Fig. 23 
shows a pot quern, like a modern pestle and mortar, which 
would have been very useful for pounding things up. These 
querns were made of gritstone, and can be seen at the British 
Museum in Wall Case 5 in the Prehistoric Room. 



New Stone 

Fig. 23. — Pounding Grain. 


We come now to one 
of the most important 
discoveries of Neolithic 
man or woman ; he or 
she found out the way 
to make pottery. Fig. 
24 shows a bowl of thick 
dark ware made with- 
out the potter's wheel, 
probably in the same 
way that the Akikuyu 
of British East Africa 
work to-day. These 
people temper their 
clay by pulling it into 
small pieces and freeing 
it from stones ; it is 

then dried in the sun, and after mixed with water until 
it is plastic. A fine sand is then kneaded into it, in the 
proportion of about half in half, and the claj' finished 
in long rolls. One or two of these are formed into a 
collar shape, and with one hand inside this, and the other 
Out, it is gradually modelled into the shape of the top 
half of the pot, more clay being added in roUs as the work 

proceeds. The half pot is 
allowed to dry in the sun 
for some hours, except the 
lower edge where the join 
has to come ; this is pro- 
tected by leaves. This edge 
has rested on leaves while 
the top half was being made, 
so that it could be turned 
more easily, and this move- 
ment must have suggested 
the potter's wheel later on. 
In the next stage this top 
half is turned upside down 
on its already finished 
mouth, on more leaves, and 


,^.. ABOUT^e^ ^.^ 

Fig. 24. — Neolithic Pot, 


the modelling proceeds 
as before, more material 
being added as required 
to form the bottom, the 
shape being given by 
one hand in, and the 
other out, until there 
is only room for one 
finger, and then the 
hole is closed, and the 
pot finished. Again, a 
few hours are allowed 
for hardening, then the 
pots are placed mouth 
downwards on the 
ground, and a bonfire 
of brushwood made all 
around them ; when 
this has burned out, 
and the pots are cool, 
they are ready for 
use. The only tool 

used, beside the hand, is a piece of gourd shell. 

Fig. 25 shows how Neolithic woman went to work, and 

Fig. 26 a pottery spoon she made, which can be seen at the 

British Museum. 

Fig. 25. — Making Pottery. 

Woman as an Inventor 

The Akikiiyu pottery is made by women, and the proba- 
bility is that Neolithic woman did this work, and looked after 
the home, while her husband was hunter and herdsman. She 
probably did far more than just cook and mend ; we must 
think of her as an inventor. With pottery the long train 
was started which has led up to the modern saucepan ; 
before then, meat could only be roasted over a fire, or baked 
, in a cooking-pit, but with a stout earthen pot that could 
I be placed in the ashes the Neolithic equivalent of Irish stew 
! was possible. Water could be heated, and milk and graini 

\ It will be noticed that the pot shown in Fig. 24 has a 
grounded bottom, which suggests that it might have been 


PANS New Stone 

blocked up on two or 
three stones, and a fire 
made under it. 

Perhaps it was the 
woman who noticed that 
cattle ate the seeds of 

grasses, and experimented Fig. 26.— Pottery Spoon. 

by grinding some between 
. stones ; she may have tasted the flour and found it 
/ sweet, and then have brought home more seeds. A few 
} seeds may have blown away into the ground newly turned up 
/ at the base of a hut, and the woman may have watched these 
I gromng and have watered and tended them. In this way it 
1^ may have occurred to her to make a garden, and she would 
have discovered that cultivation improved the crop ; once 
this fact was appreciated there were endless opportunities ; 
the crab apple, wild plum, and other fruits could be experi- 
mented with, and most probably woman was a gardener 
before man became a farmer ; of one thing we may be quite 
sure. Neolithic man did not rise up one day and plant an 
acre lynchet, without endless experiments and questionings 
going before. 
\ If Neolithic woman made pottery, then it is to her we 
; must give the credit for a renaissance of the Arts. There 
had been a great slump in the art world since the Magdalenian 
times of the Old Stone Age, but with the coming of pottery^ 
pattern began. At first it did not amount to mucii'"more 
than cutting lines in the damp clay, or denting it with the 
finger nail ; still it was a start, and before this book ends 
we shall see how in late Celtic times pattern became very 

Neolithic Earthworks 

Having seen something of men's houses in Neolithic times, 
and the more domestic details of their hves, we can turn to 
their larger works. The trackways, or road system shown 
on Fig. 3, link up a series of splendid earthworks, and many 
of these are of Neolithic construction. Starting perhaps as 
simple cattle enclosures, surrounded by a ditch and bank, 
with some additional precautions taken at the entrances, 
these camps were gradually improved, until we arrive at such 







27. — Plan of Badbury Rings, 
Wimborne, Dorset. 

a masterpiece as Maiden 
Castle near Dorchester. 
More banks were added, 
the entrances made into 
mazes of ingenuity ; the 
camps divided into two 
parts, one for cattle and 
the other for people ; de- 
veloped just in the same 
way as the Tower of Lon- 
don, where we find the 
Norman keep surrounded 
by much later works. 

It is very difficult to 
estimate the age of earth- 
works ; especially the very 
simple ones. Neolithic 
flint implements and pot- 
tery have dated some ; in 
others Roman coins have 
been found, but this would 
not justify us in saying that 
an earthwork was Roman. The Romans fortified their camps 
when on the march, but did not of course ever live in hill 
forts. Roman coins in these may point to the times of the 
Saxon terror, when the Britons fled to these forts as places of 
refuge and took their money with them. 

Earthworks are classified by archaeologists as A, Pro- 
montory Fortresses, where a piece of high ground inaccessible 
\ by reason of precipices or water on one side, has been defended 
I by artificial works on the other. B 1 are Hilltop Forts mth 
artificial defences following the natural lines of the hill, and 
- are sometimes called Contour forts. B 2 are Forts on high 
ground, less dependent on natural slopes for protection, and 
there are later types which do not concern us now. 

To illustrate the general principles of this method of fortifica- 
tion by earthwork we have chosen Badbury Rings, near 
Wimborne, Dorset, which is classified under B i, and the 
plan of this is shown on Fig. 27. It may be as well to give 
first a brief description of the terms used in describing an 
earthwork. Vallum, Rampart, and Agger, all mean earthen 
walls, see i on section on Fig. 28. Fosse or Ditch at 2, 


New Stone 





Escarpment is the slope at 3. Counterscarp at 4 ; if the 
counterscarp is brought up above the level line as a smaller 
rampart, this is a revetment. The flat piece of undisturbed 
ground at 5 is a Berm. The plans of earthworks, which 
generally look like hair^'- caterpillars biting their tails, show 
the top of a slope as a thick line tapering off down the slope. 

Now as to the way the old builders went to work. To 
start with, they had as good an eye for the possibilities of a 
piece of country as a Royal Engineer officer, or a fox-hunting 
squire. They always chose pleasant sunny situations where 
the thyme-scented grass gave good feeding for their cattle, 
and the scabious flowers nodded in the breeze to the song 
of the skylark. There is no more pleasant place in which 
to loaf than an old earthwork ; you can always get into the 
sun and out of the wind, and the slope of the banks is exactly 
right for an easy position from which to gaze over the country- 
side, and that is just what the old men wanted to do. Their 
cattle would have grazed on the hillside, meanwhile the 
watchman kept a look out for wolves and wild boar, or 
wandering cattle-lifters. Cattle was wealth in these days. , 

The builders then chose the rounded hump of a chalk down, 
which was not controlled by any higher ground, and it is 
probable that the first thing they did was to dig one simple 
ditch and bank, or fosse and vallum. In doing this they had 
to use antler picks, and shoulder-blade shovels, as Fig. 10 ; 
remember they had no metal as yet. They doubtless carried 
up the chalk in rough baskets, and so raised the bank above 
them. On examining an old earthwork, the first thing to 
do is to discover the na'tural level, as dotted line on section 
on Fig. 28, and then see how they went to work, because at 
first sight the fosses are so deep, and the banks so high, 
that it seems impossible such work could have been done 
without steam navvies. When we have found the natural 
level, we discover that the art of the job was, that by the 
basket of earth dug out, not only was the ditch lowered, but 
the bank raised ; see A, Fig. 29, and that a higher bank was 
made more speedily on a slope as at B, than on the level. 
Again, on a very steep slope as C, the soil dug out could be 
thrown downhill. 

Still, notwithstanding all this, these earthworks must have 
been tremendous undertakings. The outermost of the three 
banks at Badbury, which we illustrate, is i mUe in circuit ; 


New Stone 


at Maiden Castle, near Dorchester, nearly i^. Particular 
care was given to the design of the entrances. At Badbury 
there are two, one on the E. and the other the W. ; the dotted 
line shows the way in. On the W. side the banks have been 
cut through in other places in recent times, but in old days 
any invading force had to come as the dotted line, which left 
them very much at the mercy of the bowmen on the banks 
above them. Our drawings (Figs. 28 and 29) show the eastern 
entrance, and how this was controlled. A " flanking " 
entrance was so arranged that the right side (unprotected 
by shield) was exposed to the defenders' arrows. The 
tops of the banks were palisaded, and the bottoms of the 
ditches filled with sharpened stakes. These palisades led 
the way to the hedges of Saxon times, because the wood of 
which they were made being green, must have sprouted, 
and given men the idea of a hedge. The wide areas between 
the banks, called " bermes," may have been used as cattle pens, 
because a stampede of half-wild cattle at night would not 
have been pleasant ; or, as at Maiden Castle, the camp may 
have been divided into two parts for the same purpose. 

Hut circles are found in the earthworks, which suggest huts 
as shown in our drawings. Heaps of sling stones have been 
found, and bracers, or wrist-guards, which show that bows 
were used. 

Water Supply 

There has been considerable discussion as to how the Hill 
Fort men provided themselves with water, and there are 
various theories. First, it must be remembered that the 
fort formed the citadel, and place of refuge for the district, 
and the people grouped themselves around it. Their little 
huts were not difl&cult to make, and their simple husbandry 
meant only the cultivation of the terraces, or lynchets, on the 
hillside where they grew their corn ; they did not need or 
use so much water as we do to-day, and in the usual way 
were free to go downhill to the nearest stream. The country 
was not drained in those days, which meant water lay on a 
higher level than now, but leaving springs on one side, there 
is the dew pond which is still used to water cattle on the 
Wiltshire Downs. This is made as Fig. 30. A shallow saucer- 
like depression is cut in the chalk, and lined with straw. On 


WATER New Stone 


Fig. 30. — A Dew Pond. 

this comes a layer of puddled clay, with rims of chalk to protect 
the clay from the feet of cattle. Loose flints are put on the 
bottom, and the pond is started with a little water in it. The 
straw and clay cut off the heat of the earth, and when the moist 
mists drive over the Downs at night and come to the cooler 
pond, they condense on its surface. Ordinary ponds are formed 
in this way, where a pocket of clay comes in a warmer soil. 
Water drains into it, and the cattle puddle up the clay till it 
is free from cracks and watertight, and so the pond extends. 
In the hot summer of 1921 we were going through Dorset 
looking at earthworks, and found the pond on the top of 
Holt Heath, near Bull Barrow, full of water, while the Tarrant 
river in the valley close by was absolutely dry. The Wycombe 
chairmakers, who go into the woods to turn chair legs, obtain 
water in an ingenious way. If you examine the bole of a 
beech tree, you will find well-marked channels, where the 
rain and condensed dew runs down the tree-trunk. The 
chairmaker makes a cross cut in such a channel, and drives 
a chip of wood in which diverts the water into a paU ; so 
turning on a tap is not the only way to get water. 

Life in the Wild 

We think other questions may have occurred to boys and 
girls who have visited a hill fort ; they may have asked 
themselves, how early man could have withstood the cold and 
rain in such an exposed position, with only very scanty cloth- 
ing. The Great War was a revelation as to the amount of 
hardship modern man could withstand, and yet remain 
healthy, but a happier example was given by a Mr. Knowles 
in 191 3. Mr. Knowles is an American ; bom in the back- 
woods, he ran away to sea as a boy ; later he was a trapper 
and guide, and now is an artist. Without knowing anything 
about primitive man, Mr. Knowles wondered whether it 
would be possible for a modern man to go into the wilds and 

c 33 


support life without any outside aid ; to depend entirely on 
one's own effort. He determined to try, and on 4th August 
191 3 walked out alone into the woods of Northern Maine, 
naked, without any weapons, tools, knives, or matches. His 
book Alone in the Wilderness tells us how he fared. Fire was 
made with a fire-drill, as Fig. 47, Part I. ; and the inner bark 
of cedar braided into thin rope used for the bowstring, until 
later, when game had been killed, sinews were available. 
A log too heavy to move, was cut into short lengths by lighting 
fires at the places where it was to be divided ; sticks were 
pointed by burning the ends and then scraping away the char. 
A maple had fallen on to a hornbeam and smashed it up, and 
this provided the slivers of wood which could be scraped down 
%vith a " sharp rock " into the bow and arrows. Food was 
toasted over a fire, or on rocks heated by fire, and the fire 
banked down lasted for days. Mr. Knowles found it quite 
possible to walk about naked by day, but needed leg coverings 
as a protection against briars, and a rug for the night ; in this 
he was like the Australians and Tasmanians (p. 35, Part I.). 
The rug was obtained by trapping a bear in a combined pit 
and deadfall trap. Pointed stones and digging sticks, as 
Fig. 62, Part I., were used to dig the pit, and the bear when 
caught, killed by a blow on the nose from a hornbeam club. 
We may be quite sure that prehistoric man used all sorts of 
traps and snares in this way. Mr, Knowles used sharp stones 
for the skinning, and " quantities of meat came off with the 
skin " ; this gives us a clue as to why prehistoric man used 
so many scrapers. Some of the bears' meat was smoked for 
keeping, and all the sinews kept for ties. There were blue- 
berries and raspberries for the picking ; various buds and 
barks were chewed, and frogs eaten, but not liked. Trout 
were caught by brealdng down a beaver dam, which lowered 
the stream above, and left the fish stranded in pools. Animals 
were surprised in the act of killing, and driven off their prey ; 
an otter who had killed a trout ; a bear, a deer. Mr. Knowles 
did not suffer from the lack of salt, except that his food was 
not so palatable. For huts rough shelters were made, like 
Fig. 37, Part I., and mocassins were made of the inner lining 
of cedar bark, until skins could be obtained. Bowls, in which 
water could be heated, were made of birch bark skewered into 
shape, and these do not burn below the water-line. Mr. 
Knowles' book is illustrated by drawings made with char- 



New Stone 

Fig. 31.— a Deadfall Trap. 

coal from his fires on birch bark ; he actually contemplated 
painting, and started making paper and brushes. 

He passed his forty-fourth birthday in the woods, and was 
examined by Dr. Dudley A. Sargent, the physical director of 
Harvard University, both before and after his experiment. 
According to the system employed at Harvard, his physical 
condition equalled 876 points before, and 954 after. If a 
twentieth-century man could do all this, we do not think there 
is any need to be sorry for prehistoric man in his hilltop fort ; 
the sun and rain would not have worried him, and he probably 
thought of himself as being tremendously up to date. Mr. 
Knowles feared the cold, but found that the real trial was the 
isolation from his fellow-men. This seems to us a very just 
conclusion, and has been proved over and over again. Where 
an individual, or race, is cut off, then development is arrested ; 
however, in this book we are concerned with communities which 
are continually increasing in size. 

Social Life 

The concentration of a number of people either making or 
living in a hill fort was to have great results. In the old days, 
the hunting tribe was like a large family, who very speedily 
knew all one another's good points, and were so apt to emphasize 
the bad ones ; life was not at all exciting. The keeping of 



cattle brought more people together, and the simple enclosures 
developed into places like Maiden Castle, Here there must 
have been a bustling life, with all sorts of men coming and 
going, and new things to be discovered. Think of the excite- 
ment caused by a trader from overseas, arriving at Weymouth, 
and trudging over the hills to Maiden Castle, and bringing the 
first bronze celt ; the hubbub that would have arisen among 
a people who had never seen metal before. Customs would 
arise, and Law soUdify out of these. Language would develop 
around the hut fires, and traditional tales form the beginnings 
of literature. These hill forts are evidences of a more ordered 
system of life than anything which had gone before ; even 
to-day with all our transport system, and organized labour, the 
construction of either Badbury or Maiden Castle would call for 
concentrated efiort. To make a flint implement, which you do 
yourself, is one thing ; to construct a camp which needs the 
labour of many men is quite another. It had to be planned ; 
there must have been some few men who were skilled in the 
design of camps, and could say to the tribesmen, " To-day we 
will cut this ditch, and dump the stufi here to form a bank. 
You are going wrong there ; and you have not allowed suf&cient 
room for that escarpment, because the angle of repose at which 
chalk will come to rest is flatter than that," and so on. 

Whether they were made by slave, or free, cannot now be 
ascertained, but probably by freemen. The beginnings of 
slavery are to be found in war, and it is doubtful if the tribes- 
men were sufl&ciently organized as yet to combine for warfare ; 
the forts would have had to withstand raids, not endure 
sieges. Combination for the arts of peace would have led 
in the end to the application of the same principles to war ; 
then, again, prehistoric man would at first have massacred 
his captives, until it occurred to him as being wasteful, when 
they would have been enslaved instead. 

If our readers will read Mr. Hippisley Cox's book, The 
Green Roads of England, they will find how these hill forts 
are all linked up on a trackway system, as well adapted to 
the needs of the time as the Roman roads and stations later 
on. This road question brings up fortification, and what it 
means. Let us imagine Badbury, not grass grown as it is to- 
day where with a tea-tray we can toboggan, but all shining white 
where the chalk banks had been thrown up ; or Maiden Castle, 
i| miles round its outer circuit. It would have been startlingly 



New Stone 

formidable in appearance. As 
the later tribes came in as im- 
migrants, and found their way 
along the trackways, these hill 
forts were there to bar their way. 
Of course, there were not any 
invading armies in those days, 
who needed to maintain lines of 
communication with the coast ; 
it was a case of invading tribes 
who wished to settle down. In 
the case of hostile tribes, they 
certainly could not afford to cross 
a trackway and leave a hill fort 
on their flank or rear, unless they 
came to terms with its inhabit- 
ants. In this way these hill forts 
played exactly the same part as 
the Norman Castles and walled 
towns of the Middle Ages. 

Long Barrows 

We can now pass on to the 
Neolithic Long Barrow, or Burial 
mound, because, apart from its 
spiritual significance which we 
will discuss later, it has great 
interest in its structure. The 
Long Barrow derives its name 
from the fact that it is egg-shaped 
on plan, and there are two types ; 
those having chambers inside for 
the interment, and others where 
the bodies were covered directly 
by the earth ; these latter have a 
ditch at the sides leaving a wide 
path at the original level at each 
end. Generally placed E. and W., 
the burial is usually in the E. end, 
which is higher and broader than 
the W. It is a curious fact that the 
Neolithic long-head built a long 



Fig. 33. — Earth House, Usinish, 
South Uist, Hebrides. 

barrow, while that of 
the later round - headed 
Bronze man was round. 

Fig. 32 shows the West 
Kennet long barrow. 
Originally it was about 
S36 feet long by 75 feet 
wide at the E. end, where 
it was some 8 feet high. 
The small figures at each 
end are in scale with the 
length, and serve to give 
an indication of its size. 

The sepulchral chamber, as the plan at A, was about 60 
feet from the E. end, with an entrance corridor from 
the outside. It is the construction of this chamber and 
corridor, with large stones, which makes it a megalithic 
structure, and so links it up with Stonehenge. The building 
principle is the same, large stones are placed on edge, and 
the covering formed by others laid flat as lintels. In other 
structures of this sort, where the span was too great for one 
stone, courses of masonry were projected from either side 
as corbels, until the central space was narrow enough to be 
bridged. See Picts Houses, Figs. 3;^ and 34. Around the out- 
side of the W. Kennet barrow came a dry stone wall with upright 
sarsen stones at intervals. This dry stone walling was a 
great accomplishment on the part of the builders, and marked 
an advance. Long-headed skeletons were found in the 
chamber, and no evidence of cremation. The plan at B is of 
the Corridor Tomb at New Grange, in Drogheda, Ireland. 
Externally it consists of a huge heap of stones, 300 feet in 
diameter and 70 feet high. Internally the corridor is some 
60 feet long, and leads to the central chamber, which is roughly 
domed over at a height of 20 feet. Off this central chamber are 



New Stone 

Fig. 34. — Picts House, Sutherland. 

recesses, used for sepul- 
chral purposes. These 
chambered barrows are 
planned much on the same 
lines as the Stone Age 
Temples of Malta. Some- 
times the bones found in 
the Long Barrows are dis- 
jointed, as if they had 
been placed there some 
while after death ; and 
it may well be that only 
the heroe were thought 
worthy ol such burial. 
Because the barrows were 
used for more than one 
burial, it has been sug- 
gested that slaves may 
have been sacrificed to 
accompany their tribal 

chiefs to the spirit world, in the same way that imple:i_ 
ments and pottery were broken, and animals slaughtered, ^ 
but it is--doubtful if slavery was yet possible. We shall 
probably be quite safe if we regard these barrows as tribal 
mausoleums, where the people could assemble and hold services. 
They are a visible sign to us that Neolithic man believed in a 
life hereafter, and built them as an emphatic assertion that 
death is not final. It must have needed some great impulse 
to bring the tribe together, and make them willing to under- _ 
take such a vast work as the construction of a barrow. 

This provision of houses for the dead throws an interesting 
sidelight on the belief of those days' ; it suggests that in 
Neolithic times the spirit was tied to the earth for some _ 
little while, whereas in the later Bronze Age burials, when— _ 
the b^ody was burned, it seems as if the spirit was freed at _ 
once to go to the spirit-world. The homes for the dead may^^ 
have been modelled on those of living men ; there is a range 
of habitations which would appear to have been developments 
of this idea. Figs. 33 and 34 show what are known as Picts 
Houses in Scotland, and this form of stone construction 
covered with earth is clearly derived from the chambered 
barrows. Again, the Eskimo houses (Figs. 35 and 36) seem 



oe^^ ^_ 

Fig. 35. — Eskimo Rock Hut. 

to be survivals carried to the N. In Fig. 35 there is a long 
tunnel entrance leading to the hut, with the beds at A, and the 
cooking-places at B. The roof of hut is formed of skins, 
with a layer of moss between, carried on the poles shown in 
the sketch. The window is of membrane stretched between 
whales' jaw bones. The snow house (Fig. 36) is of the same 
form. There are Picts houses in Scotland which consist of a 
paved trench lined with masonry, and covered with stone slabs 
which terminate in a round chamber. 

Fig. 17 is of a Picts Tower, Doon, or Broch, found in 
Sutherland, Caithness, Orkneys, Shetlands, and the Hebrides. 
The little door shown is only 3 feet 8 inches high, by 3 feet 
broad, and leads through the wall, which is 10 feet 6 inches 
thick, with a guard cell ofiE the passage 4 feet high and 9 feet 
long, with a doorway 2 feet square. There is a circular 

Fig. 36. — Eskimo Snow House. 

New Stone 

Fig. 37. — Picts Tower 

court inside, open to the sky, and in the wall of this, opposite 
the entrance, another door leads to a passage winding up in 
the thickness of the wall to upper galleries, all of which are 
very low, and lighted by windows into the inner court. It 
is very difficult to date such buildings, but these Picts towers 
are Megalithic in character, and built of dry stone ; in design 
they are first cousins to the Nuraghi of Sardinia, which are 
fortified dwellings. The Picts are supposed to have descended 
from the Iberian stock, and, it may well be, built these towers, 
perhaps as late as Roman times, in this distant part of the 

Fig. 38 shows a Dolmen, or Table Stone ; this may have 
been part of the chamber of a barrow, from which the en- 
circling earth has been removed, and ploughed away. Its 
construction is as described on page 38. 

Fig- 39 is of a Menhir, or Standing Stone ; these may have 
been connected with worship, or be the memorials to brave 
men, or great events. In Genesis xxxii., we read that Jacob 
and Laban made a covenant, and so " Jacob took a stone, 
and set it up for a pillar," and in Genesis xxxvi., that " Jacob 
set up a pillar on her grave : that is the pillar of Rachel's grave 
unto this day." A Cromlech is a circle of menhirs ; an align- 
ment where they are arranged in open lines. A Trilithon, 
two menhirs with a lintel across the top. 

We have said that megalithic means building with large 
stones, and it is well to realize how large some of these were. 




Mr. Peet, in Rough 
Stone Monuments, writes 
of a block weighing 
nearly 40 tons, which 
must have been brought 
18 miles, at La Perotte, 
Charente, France. 

It may be as well 
before we pass on to 
Stonehenge, the greatest 
of our megalithic monu- 
ments, to get some idea 
of how the builders went 

to work. It is probable that the only mechanical aid they had 

was the lever. Boys and girls, who learn mechanics, will not 

need to be reminded of 

what the lever means, so 

they must excuse this di- 
gression for some others 

who may not know. 

Fig. 40 shows a see- 
saw, and the principles of 

leverage may have been 

discovered by Neolithic, 

or perhaps Palaeolithic, 

boys and girls amusing 

themselves in this way. 

A see-saw is like a pair 

of scales ; it does not 

make any difference if 

you sit on the beam, or 

are suspended below it. 

If the two boys sit at an 

equal distance from the 

centre, and are of the 

same weight, they will 

balance one another, but 

if one is heavier, he will 

have to come nearer the 

centre, if equilibrium is 

to be maintained. So 

much is this the case, 


Fio. 39. — A Menhir. 


New Stone 







f- — & rf^ 

r--6 --k/* 

.-.. 6 

Fig. 40. — The Laws of Leverage, 

that if he is very much heavier, say 6 stone, to his small brother, 
I stone, then the heavy boy need only be i foot from the centre, 
to balance the light boy at 6 feet, as A, Fig. 40. Imagine the 
beam at A as a lever ; i cwt. applied in a downward direction 
at one end, 6 feet away from the centre, will exert an upward 
pressure of 6 cwt. at the other end, i foot away from the centre. 
If the boys sit, both on one side, as at B, they will be 
balanced by a 2-stone boy 6 feet away on the other side. 
If we take the left-hand side of B, and find that 6 stone at 
I foot= I stone at 6 feet, and apply it as at C, and imagine the 
6 stone at i foot as a log or stone which has to be lifted, then 
1 stone lift 6 feet away will do it. We can apply our lever in a 
different way as at D. The beam is bent at right angles ; one 
arm is 6 feet long, and the short one i foot. A i stone push 
at the top of the 6 feet long arm will produce a 6 stone pull 
up at the end of the horizontal arm, i foot long. This brings 
us to the erection of church steeples, chimney shafts, and 
towers. Take E, 6 units high, by 2 broad in its base, as a 
tower which has to resist the pressure of wind by its weight. 
Wind pressures are known, and their force on the whole area 
is applied to a lever arm of half the height of the tower as at E. 
To oppose this there is weight, acting through its centre of 
gravity, on a lever arm of half the width of the base. If the 
wind pressure is greater than the weight, over goes the tower. We 



do not say that primitive 
man looked at problems 
in this way, but we do, 
because of the mechani- 
cal laws these early 
builders discovered. 

Building Stonehenge 

Bearing these laws in 
mind, we can pass on to 
a consideration of how 
the builders went to 
work. Nature pro\ided 
a local sandstone, but 
the inner circle was 
constructed of strange 
stones. The nearest 
place from which these 
could have been obtained 
is the W. of Pembroke- 
shire, and it may be that 
the stones were already 
a sacred circle before 
being moved. No. i. Fig. 
41, shows the masons 
dressing the stone into 
shape in its original 
position to save weight 
in transport. It is 
thought that the masons 
may have used fire first 
to heat the stone, and 
then water to make frag- 
ments split off, but it 
would be a dangerous 
method, and they may 
have used wooden 
wedges instead. We 
have seen a good mason 
in Inverness-shire work- 
ing on a large granite 
boulder on the hillside 

WEDGES New Stone 

where it was dropped out of the bottom of a glacier ages 
ago. The mason wanted to make a 6-inch landing, and 
he obtained this by drilling a series of holes, into which he 
inserted wedges, and so split the landing out of the heart of 
the boulder. Neolithic man may have used the same methods, 
but of this we cannot be sure ; we do know that he had flint 
and stone tools, because these have been found when ex- 
cavating to raise the fallen stones at Stonehenge. The flint 
axes were roughly sharpened, and held in the hand, and appear 
to have been used to clean the surface of the stone, after it 
had been bruised by larger stone boulders, or mauls, which 
smashed off the bumps. 

No. 2, Fig. 41 , shows men lifting one end of the block to place 
rollers under it. No. 3 shows the rollers in position, and men 
pulling rough hide ropes, with others behind assisting with 
levers. At 4 we arrive at the building place, where a hole 
was dug, having one sloping side, and the upright stone being 
set in the hole, it was fixed by ramming small stones into the 
triangular space at A 5, but it seems obvious that a sloping 
embankment as at 4 must have been built up before the 
stone could be tipped into the hole. Without the embank- 
ment it would have been nearly impossible to raise the stone, 
and a very dangerous job. With the embankment, even if 
the stone slipped forward a little in the tipping over, it could 
easily have been levered back into the hole, and then when 
resting against the embankment as at 5, pulling and levering 
would have raised it ; meanwhile earth shovelled down into 
the triangular space at A would have fixed the stone in the 
desired position. As to the top lintel stones, these may have 
been placed in position by making a bigger embankment, 
or by levers as 6 and 7. The stone raised once could be 
blocked up, and the operation repeated. The stone shown in 
Fig. 41 is about the size of one of the uprights in the outer 
circle of Stonehenge. Fig. 42 is a sketch plan showing the 
original form of^onehenge. First there is an outer rampart, 
not shown on the plan, consisting of a circular ditch and bank, 
about 300 feet in diameter. There is an opening on the N.E. 
in the circle, where it is joined by an avenue. Within this 
rampart comes the actual temple as shown on plan. First 
there is the outer circle, at A, which originally consisted of 30 
stones, standing about 14 feet high by 7 feet wide by 3^ feet 
thick. Around on top of these stones comes the circle of 



^ ^5^!*^. ./ 

crowning lintels, mortised 

or hollowed out on their 

^1^ "'^^V/''' undersides on to tenons or 

^X"]^*^ •'"'*^ ■% stubs worked on the tops 

^ ' ^ ,•'» •?^*^^ of the vertical stones under. 

^'H ' i^'»'*'^'*\ \ Y^ ^^^' "^^ ^^'^^^ some idea of 

. — I — I i^__j^£_ .•_*.. _0 A what this outer circle must 

i t^'^ \ j J t ' B have looked like when com- 

% *^ 1 I if / >■ plete. Within this circle is 


another, at B, of smaller 

^^ ^, stones, and then at C came 

^/^ ■•^ateiflSL-^- \ - 5 magnificent trilithons ar- 

! "^ ranged in horseshoe form 

on plan. Each trilithon 

Fig. 42.— PlanofStonehenge. consisted of two upright 

stones and one lintel, and 
starting from the N.E., or entrance side, the height of the 
trilithons is increased. Inside the trilithons is another horse- 
shoe of smaller obelisks at D, around the fiat Altar stone at E. 
Just inside the entrance from the avenue is a large flat 
stone, which has the sombre name of the " slaughtering " 
stone, and a little way down the avenue another upright one 
called the Hele Stone. 

There have been many interesting speculations as to the 
purpose and age of Stonehenge. It will be noticed that it 
is set out on an axial line which points to the N.E., or where 
the sun comes up over the horizon on the longest day, or 
summer solstice of 21st June, but it does not appear to do 
so now on the exact centre line of the entrance avenue, so 
far as it is possible to determine this. Taking this difference 
into account, and the astronomical fact that the sun rises each 
year a little more to the East, Sir Norman Lockyer and Prof. 
Penrose formed the idea that about four thousand years ago 
the sun did rise on the actual axial line of the avenue. We 
have tried to show this in Fig. 44, and have shown the Hele 
Stone as part of a trilithon. This estimate of age agrees 
with the archaeological evidence, because in the excavations 
carried out for raising the fallen stones, only flint implements 
were found, and not any bronze tools which would point to a 
later date. There is a model in the Prehistoric Room at the 
British Museum of Sir Norman Lockyer's theory. 

As to its uses, it may well be that Stonehenge was a Temple 
— 46 

New Stone 



of the Sun, from which the priests or medicine men could 
take their observation. We accept the longest and shortest 
days-as-a matter of course, if we give the matter any thought 
at all, but not so the Neolithic man. It must have been a 
mystery to him, that the sun should appear in a shallow arc 
across the horizon in the winter, but climbs into the sky in 
summer-time. It annoys us on dull days to know that the 
sun shines behind the clouds and we cannot see it, and Stone- 
henge may have been a magic observatory, where the priests 
could determine the position of the sunrise when it could not 
be seen. The priests may have settled the sea^g^; have 
said now is the time to plant ; now we will sac^^H to the 
Sun-god that he may make our crops grow, 
the miracle of growth and increase as a coi 
the Neolithic man, who^ in oxie of his rough 
had safeguarded his hardly won seed, did 
mother earth without some offering, or propiti 
The sacrifice was not necessarily just so mi 
as an offering to the gods of some person 
or a pot or implement which was valuable, sc 
or family making the sacrifice might be 
dividual did not count for very much in th^ 
the tribe came first, and if one must die to 
it had to be. In some such way the sacrifice became a part 
of the ritual of early religions. We know how in Genesis xxii. 2 
God said to Abraham, "Take now thy son, thine only son 
Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah ; 
and offer him there for a burnt-offering." 

In the twenty-first book of the Iliad, Achilles, after he has 
killed the son of Priam, throws him into the river, and speaking 
over him "exalting winged words," says, "Nor even the 
River, fair-flowing, silver-eddied, shall avail you, to whom 
long time forsooth ye sacrifice many bulls, and among his 
eddies throw whole-hooved horses down alive." 

In Mr. and Mrs. Routledge's book, on the Akikiiyu of 
British East Africa, there is an account of the people who 
dig for sand for use in making pottery. It is interesting, 
because it gives us an idea of the spiritual outlook of these 
people. The natives tunnel into the hillside for sand, like 
so many rabbits, and as they do not take any precautions, 
the burrow sooner or later falls in, and smothers the excavator. 
The Akikuyu do not take any steps to dig the poor fellow out, 


New Stone 



because this would offend the Spirit of the Sand Pit, but 
sacrifice a goat instead to propitiate the spirit, then start 
another burrow which, in its turn, necessitates another goat 
being sacrificed. This, we think, would have been the case 
with the Neolithic men : they would have worshipped the 
Sun, Moon,^nd Stars, the Rivers 'and Waters, the Mountains 
and Valleys, and a great Mother God over all. If by any 
chancejthe spirits were offended ; if certain things were done" 
which were Taboo, or forbidden, sacrifice had to be made. 
Just as the Akikuyu appear to be a very kindly pleasant 
people, who do not enslave one another, or go to war, so we 
can free the Neolithic men from the charge of cruelty. 

Stonehenge does not appear to have had any connection 
with Druidism, which followed many centuries after. The 
Druids worshipped the Moon and Stars, and Stonehenge was 
a. Sun Temple, built by an agricultural people, to whom the 
.Sun was . ari-iinpoj.tant^ 

So far as Neolithic man is concerned, his religion must 
Save^eeh a very re"^al one to him, or he would not have taken 
so much trouble with the Megalithic monuments we have been 
describing. These were very widespread, and can be traced 
along the -shores of the Mediterranean, through France, to 
this country ; we have seen how the Picts towers resemble 
the Nuraghi of Sardinia (p. 4 1 ), and the chambered barrows 
the Stone Age temples of Malta. 

This art of building was in its way as wonderful as the 
Magdalenian paintings we wrote of on page 94 of Part I., and we 
must try and imagine the builders. There is a danger in 
archaeology of thinking more of the things than of the people 
who made them ; we talk of flint implements, as if the New 
Stone Age could be collected in a bushel basket, and shown in 
the glass cases of a museum, and especially is this the case in 
the prehistoric period before there was any written history. 
The interest of things is that they were made by people, and 
when the things are temples and tombs they become extra- 
ordinarily indicative of the spirit of man ; of that essence, 
or aura, which gives him and his work individuality, and has 
made possible the great works of architecture, painting, 
poetry, and sculpture, and which makes it possible for a man 
to lay down his life for an idea. Any great movement which 
appeals to the mind of men has always been compounded of 
the spirit. 


1 -*si;i®p^ z 

Fig. 45. — Hafting of Palstave and Socketed Celt. 


WE saw, in Part I., how the men of the Old Stone Age 
found a new material in bone and ivory, and the 
effect of this was to open up a whole range of new 
activities. They could make harpoons with barbs in bone, 
which were not possible in the intractable flint. The fisher- 
men should place in their calendar of benefactors the Palaeo- 
lithic worker in bone who invented the barb. 

Even more so the introduction of metal wrought an 
enormous difference in the lives of men. The Neolithic 
herdsman, who splintered his stone axe on the skull of a 
springing wolf, saw the work of months vanish, and was in 
great danger himself, but when he was the owner of the first 
of the bronze celts, he walked abroad proudly. The edge of 
the celt might dull with use, but then it could be hammered 
up again ; it did not fly into fragments, and it could be 
hammered cold, which is an important detail to remember. 



Trees could be cut down ; houses would have been built 
more quickly than was possible before, and in a hundred 
different ways man was given a new confidence in his powers, 
and so was able to make progress. 

We must not think of a Bronze Age which started full 
blown at a particular date, or of a people who threw away 
their flint implements one day, to arm themselves with metal 
on the next. It was a very slow and gradual change over. 
It is probable that the first flat celts were brought here by 
traders from the Continent, and many years may have elapsed 
before they were followed by the round-headed men we now 
associate with Bronze, and centuries before the Goidels, or 
first of the Celtic-speaking peoples who reached this country 
(see p. 12). 

The art of Bronze working came from the East, by way 
of Italy and Gaul, and was widely spread, except in Africa, 
which never had a Bronze Age. We have seen, on page 12, 
that the Bronze men were more powerful physically than the 
Mediterranean race. Probably they were not all armed with 
bronze, but in any case in the end they conquered the Iberians. 
It was not a conquest of extermination, because we find in the 
round barrows, which are typical of the Bronze Age, round- 
headed men side by side with long-headed Iberians. 

A parallel can be found in Greece, where the round-headed 
Achaeans of the Heroic Age dispossessed the long-headed 
Minoans of Mediterranean stock. 

As the art of metal working is the great central fact which 
has given the name of the Bronze Age to this period, it may 
be as well to start by a description of the methods followed 
by prehistoric man in his craft ; in doing so we must try and 
place ourselves in his position, and imagine that we have 
never seen metal before. Bronze, we know, is an alloy 
of copper and tin, and we shall find that copper, like gold, 
is sometimes found almost pure, and is capable of being 
hammered up cold, without any preliminary smelting to 
reduce the ores. Iron ore is found in the form of red earth, 
or stone, and is not so obviously metallic, and would more easily 
have escaped attention than copper. The North American 
Indians hammered up pure copper, and made knives in this 
way before the coming of the European invaders. So the 
age of bronze may have been preceded by one of copper. 
Even when smelting and casting bronze had been discovered, 



Fig. 46. — Development of Bronze Celt. 

it was found that it could be forged cold, and that when it 
was heated, it tended to become short and fly to pieces when 
being hammered. It is hardened by hammering, and softened 
by heating and quenching, whereas iron hardens by heating 
and quenching. Bronze was an ideal metal for prehistoric 
man, because dulled edges could be hammered up again 
anywhere without very much trouble. It can be made 
extremely hard. The head of an engineering firm in Leeds 
writes us as follows : "I have just had in the shop, for making 
into a special spur wheel, a phosphor-bronze casting so hard 
that we could only just cut it, and tougher by far than any 



cast iron and most steels." He adds : "If copper and tin were 
to-day as plentiful as iron, I believe that the latter would 
only be used for special tool steels." We gladly publish this 
statement of a twentieth-century engineer to cheer the shades 
of the old bronze metal workers. 

We can now pass to smelting. Pottery had given man the 
idea of taking a plastic material and shaping it ; he may have 
used clay to Une a cooking-pit, and found that baking hardened 
it. In the same way the accidental introduction of copper 
ore into a cooking-pit, or a charcoal fire exposed to the wind, 
would have melted the ore, and this would have been found 
as metal when the ashes were raked aside. The metal may 
have cast itself into a shape which suggested a tool or weapon, 
and it would have prompted the ingenious man to experiment. 
In some such way it must have come about. The first moulds 
were simple fiat open moulds, into which the molten metal 
could be poured, then progression was made to hollow casting 
vdih clay cores which could afterwards be scraped out. Stone, 
bronze, and probably fine sand were used, and actual moulds 
can be seen at the British Museum. 

We get an inkling of how the bronze men went to work 
from the Iliad xviii. Hephaistos, the famed artificer, who 
" wrought much cunning work of bronze, brooches and spiral 
arm-bands, and cups and necklaces," when he starts work on 
the wonderful shield for Achilles — " went unto his bellows 
and turned them upon the fire and bade them work. And the 
bellows, twenty in all, blew on the crucibles, sending deft 
blasts on every side. . . . And he threw bronze that weareth 
not into the fire, and tin and precious gold and silver." 

This would have been an apparatus very similar to that 
used for iron at the Glastonbury lake village, as shown in 
Fig. 72. Copper melts at 1083° centigrade, and tin at only 
232°, so that the Bronze Age founder melted the copper first, 
then threw charcoal on to the melted mass to retain the heat, 
and added the tin. The ideal aimed at seems to have been 
10 per cent, tin to 90 per cent, copper, but endless experi- 
ments went to the discovery that this made a good bronze. 
Prehistoric man did not know anything about analytical 
metallurgy. Surface copper ores sometimes contain tin- 
oxide, and the intelligent man would soon have been moved 
to find out why a celt made from this ore was tougher than 
one of pure copper. 



I fi 

2 5 


2 3 4 5 (S 7 S 

Fig. 47. — Development of Bronze Spear. 

We can now pass on to the actual implements made, and 
Fig. 46 shows the development of the Bronze Celt. No. i 
is called the Flat Celt, and is obviously fashioned on the 
lines of the stone celt which preceded it, and was hafted in 
the same way as Fig. 45. The makers soon discovered that 
by hammering the edge it became thinner, keener, and wider ; 
so the upper part of the later celts is narrower. 

No. 2 shows the Flanged Celt, formed by hammering over the 
sides. This was hafted as i. Fig. 45. A stick with a stout 
branch was selected, and this being cut off, was forked to fit 
over the top of the celt, and bound to it by raw hide. The 
disadvantage was that the thin celt split the wood head. 
A stop ridge was then developed between the flanges, and 
this finally developed into 3, Fig. 46, which is known as a 
palstave, from an Icelandic word for a narrow spud. This 
stop ridge took the force of the blow, and prevented the head 
from sphtting (see i, Fig. 45). In this type, the web between 
the flanges, above the stop ridge, was thinner than the axe 
part under, and this feature is more pronounced in 4, where 
the flanges are hammered over into the form of what is known 
as the Winged Celt. No. 5 shows the wings lapping, and in 6 



' """ '*" i nm"[r'i i T'^"-^""'*^""'nT""^'"""'*"'""'^ ~^.^.....^»>m.->...,m, 

■^ — s — s — i=-4* 

Fig. 48. — A Leaf-shaped Sword. 

they have disappeared, and we arrive at the final Socketed 
Celt, which was hafted as 2, Fig. 45. There were endless 
intermediates, and the celt is well worth studying, because 
it is the ancestor of that friend of man, the axe. 

The Bronze Spear is a weapon with an interesting history. 
It started life as i, Fig. 47, and in this form was used either 
as a knife or a dagger. It was cast soUd, and provided with a 
tang which was fitted into the end of the wooden shaft, and 
this latter was prevented from spUtting by a plain bronze 
collar, through which a rivet passed and secured the end of 
the tang. In 2 the collar has become socket-shaped, and 
though not cast with the spear-head, is attached to it by 
two rivets, and the tang still remains. In 3 the tang has 
gone, and the socket is part and parcel of the spear-head. 
But an amusing fact should be noticed : that the rivets which 
once fastened it to the head remain as ornamental bumps. 
No. 3 has loops for thong attachment to the shaft, or for tying 
on feathers or streamers. In 4 and 5 the socket has further 
developed, and the spear-head is formed of fins cast on to the 
sides of the socket. In 5 these are leaf-shaped, and the loops 
are decorative. In 6 the whole spear-head is a triumph of 
hollow casting. 

The Sword developed out of the knife by way of the dagger 
or rapier. It is easy to see that spear-head No. i. Fig. 47, 
if it had a short handle fitted on to the tang instead of the 
shaft, would make a useful knife. A rapier was an elongated 
dagger, and the sword a later invention. Fig. 48 shows a 
beautiful leaf-shaped sword. The tang for handle was cast 
on the blade, with the edges slightly flanged up, and then in 
between these edges grips of horn or wood were riveted on 
each side through the tang, and a round pommel clipped on 
to the end. Leather scabbards were used with bronze tips 
called chapes. Bronze was not used for arrow-heads, but 
flint, as in NeoUthic times. The two drawings, Fig. 46 of the 
celts, and Fig. 47 of the spears, show the development over 
the whole of the Bronze Age, and by reference to the chart 



Fig. 49. — A Bronze Age Smith. 

(pp. xi, xii)we shall find that this lasted not less than 1300 
years. To realize how long a time this is, we must remember 
that 1 300 years ago in this country would take us back nearly 
to the time of the death of Ethelbert, king of the Kentish 
men, and the first Enghsh king who received baptism. 



Fig. 50. — Bronze 
Brooch and Pin. 

In Fig. 56 the central man is shown 
holding a circular Buckler or Shield made 
of a thin sheet of bronze hammered up 
into concentric circles of lines and dots. 
The buckler went with a leaf-shaped spear, 
as 5, Fig. 47. A flanged celt with shght 
stop ridge, a type midway between 2 and 3, 
Fig. 46, was found with a spear-head slightly 
earlier in form than 3, Fig. 47. The arch- 
aeologist in this way, by associated finds, 
builds up a theory of the dates and develop- 
ments of civilizations. Fig. 49, drawn from 
the actual tools at the British Museum, 
shows the equipment of a Bronze Age 
metal-worker. At i are his hammers, 
hafted like socketed celts. No. 2 shows a 
tanged chisel, and 3 a socketed gouge. 
No. 4 is a sandstone rubber, and 5 a quite 
delightful anvil. 

One of the most interesting discoveries 
ever made in England was what appears to be the complete 
furnishing of a family at the end of the Bronze Age. This 
was found in Heathery Burn Cave, County Durham, which 
may have been used as a house, or as a place of refuge. 
From remains of skulls which were discovered, the inhabit- 
ants appear to have been long-headed men of Iberian or 
Neolithic stock, and it is possible that they removed to the 
cave in face of the danger of invasion. We shall see later 
how, at Glastonbury, a people of similar extraction were put 
to the sword by invaders. 

The Heathery Burn discovery included a sword much the 
same as Fig. 48, but with slight shoulders on the cutting 
edge of the blade near the handle. A leaf-shaped spear-head, 
as 5, Fig. 47, but without the loops. Bronze discs $^ inches 
diameter, which may have been used as dress ornaments 
or horse trappings. Bronze collars which fitted on to the 
nave or hub of chariot wheels, and which, in conjunction 
with the bridle bit, show that the horse was used. A bucket 
was found, and tanged and socketed knives ; a razor, gouge, 
and a socketed celt as 6, Fig. 46 ; chisels, awls, pins, rings, 
tongs, and gold armlets. There were bone prickers, spindle 
whorls, skewers, knives, the cheek-bars of bridle-bits, and jet 



armlets ; and all these things can be seen at the British Museum. 
This splendid find includes nearly all the known types of 
Bronze Age implements, and we have founded our illustrations 
on these Heathery Burn discoveries. 

The spindle whorl shows that spinning was practised in 
the Bronze Age in this country ; both spinning and weaving 
are supposed to have started in the Swiss lake dwellings 
as early as the Neolithic times. Various types of dress 
fastenings began to come into use which were suitable for 
light woven fabrics. Fig. 50 shows a bronze brooch from 
Ireland, shaped rather like a large hollow curtain-ring, and 
so arranged that a bronze pin could be passed through it, 
and in this way fasten a cloak drawn through the ring. This 
type may have suggested the penannular brooch, as Fig. 76. 


In a barrow in the East Riding, Yorks, of this period, 
the remains of a linen winding-sheet were found under a 
skeleton, and woollen fabrics have been found in others ; 
these could only have been woven on a loom. We will 
consider, then, the steps which a Bronze Age weaver had to 
take if she wished to convert a fleece into a piece of stuff for 
making clothes. It would need washing and cleansing first, 
and then came dyeing. Crotal, a lichen growing on trees, 
may have been used. If this is put in a pot with the fleece 
and water, and boiled for one or two hours, it produces a 
rich red-brown colour. Teasing consists of pulling the fleece 
into fluff, and oiling explains itself. Carding is an operation 
which consists of putting the wool on an implement rather like 
a large butter-pat with teeth, called the card, and then pulling 
the other card across it, so as to arrange the wool for spinning. 
This latter was the occupation of girls for so many centuries, 
that we still talk of an unmarried woman as a spinster. 

The spindle which was used in the Bronze Age consisted of 
a piece of wood, perhaps about i foot long and |- inch diameter, 
and a few inches from one end came the whorl, which acted 
as a miniature fly-wheel and helped to twist the spindle. 
At the other end was a little nick in which the yarn was 
fastened. In spinning, a roll of carded wool was held in the 
left hand, or bound on to a distaff ; from this roll a little 
wool was pulled out and twisted by the fingers until a piece 



of yarn was made about i8 
inches long, and this was tied 
to the spindle. The wool 
was then paid out with the 
left hand, and the spindle 
twisted with the right . When 
the spindle stopped revolv- 
ing it was held, when the 
t\vist ran up the length of 
wool which had been paid 
out and made this into yarn, 
which could then be wound 
on to the spindle and the 
spinning resumed. We have 
shown this in Fig. 5 1 . 


Weaving is, and has been 
since the Bronze Age, one 
of the crafts which has had 
the greatest influence on 
the progress of man. It is 
beautiful work, done wher- 
ever man wants clothes, and 
carried out in many different 
ways ; but the main principle 
of weaving is always the 
same. The long threads 
running through the length 
of a piece of cloth are 
called the warp ; the ones 
Fig, 51.— Spinning. which cross these by going 

under and over the warp 
are called the weft. From the discovery of loom weights 
as shown at the bottom of the warp-threads in Fig. 52 
in the Swiss lake villages and in England, it is thought 
that the earliest looms were of this pattern, which is 
called the Warp-weighted Loom ; the weights keeping the 
warp properly stretched. The warp-threads are kept in 
place by yarn threaded through them at the bottom. It is 
probable that at first the weaver took the skein of yarn in 




her right hand, and 
picking up the warp- 
threads one or two at 
a time with the left 
hand, passed the weft- 
threads through from 
side to side, over and 
under the warp. She 
may have used a 
wooden lath to beat 
the weft-threads up, 
and so make the cloth 

Fig. 53 shows the 
next development, and 
our drawing is based 
on the Scandinavian 
loom in the Copen- 
hagen Museum. The 
diagrams at the side, 
A and B, illustrate the 
method of weaving, 
and we shall find as 
we go along that, 
though the details are 
elaborated, this prin- 
ciple remains. A piece 

of fabric has been woven at the top downwards, and below this 
the warp-strings hang down with their weights on the ends. 
They are divided at i by a shed-stick : the shed is the space 
through which the weft is passed. At 2 is the heddle-rod, 
which is attached to alternate warp-strings by loops. The 
weaver then passes his shuttle through the space between 
the warp-strings, above the heddle-rod in A position, which 
is called the counter shed. The heddle-rod is then pulled 
out to B position, which brings the warp-threads which were 
at the back to the front, and the weft is again passed through 
the space now called the shed. 

In this way the weaving proceeds, like darning, first under 
and over the warp-strings, then over and under. This would 
make a plain cloth ; in patterned work different coloured 
yarns can be used, and instead of just over and under the 


Fig. 52. — Warp-weighted Loom of 
Simplest Type. 

Fig. 53. — Warp-weighted Loom of more Developed Type. 




54. — Comb. 

warp, you can go over and under and then 
skip two or three, and so produce a pattern. 
On Greek vases Penelope is shown working 
at an upright warp - weighted loom like 
Fig. 53, but it has been developed by making 
the top cloth beam to revolve, so that the 
cloth could be wound up as it is woven. 

Fig. 54 shows what is called now a 
weaver's comb, found at Glastonbury lake 
village, but we doubt if this was used, as 
suggested, to comb or pack the weft-threads 
tightly together ; it would have been an 
inconvenient way of doing it ; so here is a 
problem for our readers to determine the use 
of the comb. 

Fig. 55 shows a man shaving with a razor 
of a very usual pattern in England during 
the Bronze Age ; he probably used oil instead yiq 
of soap. 

Fig. 56 is a costume plate for the three periods of this 
book, and it is the central figures which are of Bronze 
Age and so discussed here. The remains of dresses of this 
period have been found in Jutland, which suggest that the piece 
of stuff woven on the looms was wrapped around the body with- 
out any shaping. This is the case with the tunic of the man 
and the skirt of the girl. In the case of the man this was 
the beginning of the kilt. The girl's bodice would have been 
roughly cut in kimono shape, and the side seams sewn under 
the arms. She is shown wearing a bronze disc fastened on 
to a woven tasselled belt, and her hair was gathered into a 
thread net, and fastened by long bronze pins. She is 
wearing a jet necklace. The shoes of both man and woman 
are of skin, and the man has a circular cloak and cap of thick 
rough knotted wool. 

We have seen on page 58 that one of the finds at the Heathery 
Burn Cave was a point of deer antler, about 5 inches long 
and curved in shape ; it is pierced twice on the radial lines 
of the curve, and once at right angles. Similar pieces have 
been found in the Swiss lake dwellings, and it is suggested 
that these were the cheek bars of bridle-bits, as Fig. 57. Prob- 
ably the first bit was a twisted leather thong, knotted at the 
width of the mouth, and then the ends passed through the 



cheek pieces as reins. 
If the transverse hole 
of one of these horn 
bars is examined, it 
will be found to be worn 
smooth as by a leather 
rein. A sketch is added 
to the drawing of a 
bronze bit from the 
Swiss lake dwellings, 
which shows the influ- 
ence of the early antler 
type. The pony in 
Fig. 57 is wearing the 
gold Peytrel, or breast- 
plate, discovered at 
j\told, Flintshire, which 
is now in the British 
Museum. It would fit 
a pony of about twelve 
hands, and it is em- 
bossed in the same style 
as the bucklers. When 
one bears in mind that 
the warrior to whom 
it belonged did not in 
all probability decorate 
his horse, until he had 
satisfied his own vanity, we can be quite sure that together they 
must have presented a splendid sight. 

The Heathery Burn discovery includes bronze nave 
collars for chariot wheels. The nave of a wheel is its hub, 
and this suggests spokes. The first wheels were probably 
solid on their axle, rather like a cotton reel. A, Fig. 58, shows 
another type made up of three boards secured by dovetailed 
clamps. B, Fig. 58, shows the start of the spoke, not as we 
know it to-day, but arranged more as a brace. The upright 
part includes nave, two spokes, and parts of the felly or rim, all 
in one piece of wood. The four other spokes are braced between 
this and the remaining parts of the felly. These come from 
the Swiss lake dwellings, and must be early types, because a 
later wheel has been found there which, though in bronze, 


Fig. 55. — Shaving with Bronze Razor. 


WliHiWiill. r ., . 

Fig. 57. — Bridle and Gold Peytrel. 


,2,' iO'd'sam, 

must have been founded in a 
wooden construction. It is 
I9f inches in diameter, and 
has four spokes radiating be- 
tween nave and fellies, just 
like the wheel of to-day. We 
know too that beautifully 
turned wooden wheel naves 
have been found at Glaston- 
bury lake village, dating from 
the Early Iron Age, and in 
what are called the chariot 
burials of Yorkshire, of the 
same period, the iron tyres 
of chariot wheels have been 

The original Aryan-speaking 
peoples, the forerunners of the 
Celts, are supposed to have 
possessed ox-wagons, and it 
may well be that chariots 
were introduced by the Goidels, 
who reached these shores from 
700 to 500 B.C. 

The chariot does not give 
very much opportunity to the 
maker to vary its shape. There 
must be a floor framed up on 
the axle, around which would 
come the body, perhaps of 
wickerwork covered with hides. There would have been 
a centre pole, with yoke attachment to the horses. The 
chariot of classical times must have been founded on some 
such simple basis as Fig. i . 

This question of wheel naves, the discovery of jet armlets 
at Heathery Burn Cave, and shale cups in round barrows, all 
of which must have been turned, brings up the question of 
lathes. It is difficult to see how a simpler turning contrivance 
than the Pole Lathe (Fig. 78) could be made, and this may date 
from the Bronze Age. 

2''0" <iiam» 

Fig. 58.— Wooden Wheels. 






Fig. 6o. — Plough. 

The Hill Forts and Camps were still the rallying places of 
the people, and it is probable that places like Badbury, Maiden 
Castle, and many others which had been started by the Neo- 
lithic men were improved upon in the Bronze Age. The 
trackways on the hilltops between the camps would have 
become more defined as traffic and trade routes, with tumuli 
to mark the line. Fords may have been replaced b}'' bridges ; 
there are two on Dartmoor which are still called Celtic. Fig. 
59 shows one of these at Postbridge, and its construction is 
just what we should expect from a people who had inherited 
the building tradition of Stonehenge. We should like to 
draw attention to the trumpet shown in the hands of one of 
the figures. These instruments derive their shape from the 
horns of animals, which had been used for the same purpose 
before. They were made at the end of the Bronze Age, in that 
metal, and are supposed to have been used by the Celtic people 
in warfare ; of two types, some have the mouthpiece at the 

The possession of the bronze celt, with its better cutting 
powers, meant that man could make ever larger clearings in 
the forest, grow more corn, and keep more herds. He was 
helped again, because with his bronze sickle the harvesting of 
his crops was not such a problem as when that useful im- 
plement was of flint, as Fig. 21. There is a beautiful harvest 
scene in the eighteenth book of the Iliad — "where hinds were 



reaping with sharp sickles in their hands. Some armfuls 
along the swathe were falling in rows to the earth, while others 
the sheaf-binders were binding in twisted bands of straw. 
Three sheaf-binders stood over them, while behind bovs 
gathering corn and bearing it in their arms gave it constantly 
to the binders ; and among them the king in silence was 
standing at the swathe with his staff, rejoicing in his heart. 
And henchmen apart beneath an oak were making ready a 
feast, and preparing a great ox they had sacrificed ; while 
the women were strewing much white barley to be a supper 
for the hinds." Game was less eaten now than the domesti- 
cated animals ; a proof that life was becoming easier, and 
it was not necessary to live by the chase. There are 
Scandinavian and Ligurian rock carvings of Bronze Age date, 
which show a primitive plough drawn by oxen, as Fig. 60, but 
England was the very outpost of civilization in those days, and 
we cannot be sure that the plough reached here so early ; 
yet it would not have needed so much cleverness to make as a 
bronze celt, once the idea became known. 

The hut of the hut circle was much the same as in Neolithic 
times, built in the Berm of the camp or just around it ; but 
from remains which have been found, it looks as if the hut 
itself was becoming less pit-like, and rising out of the ground 
with vertical side walls, as Fig. 67. It must be remembered 
that the Bronze Age men had their enemy the wolf, waiting 
always just round the corner to cut off stragglers, so wc may 
be sure they lived in communities. 

Pottery was still hand-made, without a wheel, but ornament 
was improving, and consisted of straight lines arranged as 
chevrons, lozenges, herring-bones, with dots and concentric 
circles, as Fig. 61. No. i in Fig. 62 is a Beaker, or drinking- 
vessel, which was introduced on the East Coast by the Beaker 
people, see page 1 1 ; it is found with unburnt burials. No. 2 
is a Food Vessel. No. 3 a Cinerary Urn, made to hold the ashes 
of a cremated burial ; and No. 4 an Incense Cup. This does not 
mean that the Bronze Age people used incense, and the name 
has been suggested by the pierced treatment of the little cups ; 
these are found in Round Barrows, and may have been used 
to bring the sacred fire which started the funeral pyre. It is 
thought that these types of pottery, which were doubtless 
deposited with the dead, for their use in the spirit world, are 
similar to those they used in their everyday life. Bronze 



^^ e e - 
. ^ e (o OB . * 

- C) « «s « 

9 ^ ^ C' <9 <? 

^ <1 <3i" on OB «» (3« 
«s o» <s» o <© ^ 

«j ep o <» ^ 


& a 

^^^!fy^ f> <m ^ a> <f) 


Fig. 6i. — Bronze Age Ornament. 



Fig. 62. — Bronze Age Pottery, 

implements were buried for the same reason, but were generally 
limited to plain axes, knife daggers, ana awls, and this limita- 
tion points to some symbolical meaning in those selected. 

Burial was either by burying the body (inhumation), or 
by burning it (cremation), and it is a little bewildering to 
find both methods practised at the same time, because in- 
humation is distinctly Neohthic, and cremation a Celtic 
custom, and yet this latter was practised before the Celts 
arrived. This points to a survival of the long-headed people 
and their ways, and the introduction of cremation as a fashion 
by the earlier round-heads from the Continent. A pit was dug 
in the ground, and a stone cist, of four stones on edge covered 
by another, made to cover it, or a hole cut in the chalk, and 
the ground heaped over in the form of a round barrow. In 
a stone country, the barrow was made of heaped stones, and 
became a cairn. No. i, Fig. 6;^, is the type which is called a 



Bowl Barrow, because it is like an inverted bowl. No. 2 
a Bell Barrow, because the ditch and bank made around the 
outside give it that shape ; and No. 3 is a Disc Barrow. 

A barrow is sometimes called a Tumulus ; in Derbyshire, a 
Low ; and in Yorkshire, a Howe. 

Silbury Hill, 6 miles W. of Marlborough, on the Bath Road, 
is in the form of a round barrow, but it is 135 feet high, 
and covers 6 acres. It is wholly artificial, and in 1907, at 
the rates of pay then obtaining, its cost was estimated at 


Cup and ring markings are common on the cover stones 
of the cists or graves in the barrows, and these are very 
similar to the markings found on the churingas of the 
Australian aborigines (p. 64, Part I.). 

Small objects called Sun Discs are found in Ireland ; these 
are made of gold about 2f inches diameter, and have the same 
decorative idea as the cup and ring markings, made up of 
concentric circles. All these things point to Sun-worship 
being characteristic of the Bronze Age ; another symbol, 
which is widely distributed, is the swastika, also considered 
a symbol of the Sun. 

It must be borne in mind that prehistoric man was still 
held in thrall by magic and mystery ; that there were many 
things which were taboo or forbidden ; like the Akikuyu 
his life and death were governed by a complicated ritual. 
Cremation in all probability was not practised to destroy 
the bodv, but to purify it of sins and uncleanness, and render 
the spirit pure for the life hereafter. The spirit of the hapless 
Patroklos appears to Achilles and urges him : " Thou sleepest, 
and hast forgotten me, O Achilles. Not in my life wast thou 
ever unmindful of me, but in my death. Bury me with all 
speed, that I pass the gates of Hades. Far off the spirits 
banish me, the phantoms of men outworn, nor suffer me to 
mingle with them beyond the River, but vainly I wander 
along the wide-gated dwelling of Hades. Now give me . . . 
my due of fire." We have seen that the implements which 
were buried with Bronze Age man were limited to certain 
symbolical types. Again we find that in the actual cinerar)' 
urns were buried, with the human remains, the bones of wild 
animals, like the fox, mole, and mouse ; surely these typified 
something. In the barrow itself, the bones of the ox, goat, 
sheep, horse, pig, and dog have been found with cremated 




Fig. 6^. — liror.ze Ace Barrows. 

burials ; of these some may be the remains of the funeral 
feasts, and the horse and dog ma)' have been slaughtered to 
accompany their master, and the sacrifice of slaves and 
captives may have formed part of the ceremony. Bone pins 
have been found, charred by fire, as if they had fastened the 
body in its shroud before it was burned. 

Homer, in the twenty-fourth book of the Iliad, gives a 
wonderful picture of the burial of Hector : 

" So nine days they gathered great store of wood. But 
when the tenth mom rose with light for men, then bare they 
forth brave Hector, weeping tears, and on a lofty pyre they 
laid the dead man, and thereon cast fire. 

" But when the daughter of Dawn, rosy-fingered Morning, 
shone forth, then gathered the folk around glorious Hector's 
pyre. First quenched they with bright wine all the burning. 
so far as the fire's strength went, and then his brethren and 
comrades gathered his white bones lamenting, and big tears 



flowed down their cheeks. And the bones they took and 
laid in a golden urn, shrouding them in soft-purple robes, 
and straightway laid the urn in a hollow grave and piled 
thereon great close-set stones, and heaped with speed a barrow, 
while watchers were set everywhere around, lest the well- 
greaved Achaians should make onset before the time. And 
when they had heaped the barrow they went back, and 
gathei"ed them together and feasted right well in noble feast 
at the palace or Priam, Zeus-fostered king." 

" Thus held they funeral for Hector, tamer of horses." 
Even fuller details are given in the twenty-third Book of 
the funeral of Patroklos, and the funeral games. Of how 
they went forth " to hew high-foliaged oaks with the long- 
edged bronze," and " splitting them asunder the Achaians 
bound them behind mules," and so brought the wood to the 
appointed place, and made a great pile. " And they heaped 
all the corpse with their hair that they cut off and threw 
thereon." The pyre was " a hundred feet this way and that, 
and on the pyre's top set the corpse." " And many lusty 
sheep and shambling crook-horned oxen they flayed and 
made ready before the pyre ; and taking from all of them, 
the fat, great-hearted Achilles wrapped the corpse therein 
from head to foot, and heaped the flayed bodies round. And 
he set therein two-handled jars of honey and oil, leaning them 
against the bier ; and four strong-necked horses he threw 
swiftly on the pyre, and groaned aloud. Nine house-dogs 
had the dead chief : of them did Achilles slay twain and threw 
them on the pyre. And twelve valiant sons of great-hearted 
Trojans he slew with the sword " to be consumed by the fire. 
The North Wind and the loud West " all night drave they the 
flame of the pyre together, blowing shrill," and after a barrow 
was made as already described for the burial of Hector. 
Then followed the funeral games, of which all can read in the 
twenty-third book of the Iliad. The next time we see a 
Round Barrow, we must think of it, not as only so much 
heaped earth, but rather as a visible sign of our own Heroic 
Age. We must try and conjure up a picture of the flaming 
pyre, and looking across the smoking eddies of time, see the 
•crowd of Bronze Age warriors burying their chief. 

Now we think we had better try and give our readers some 
idea of the migrations and minglings, the traffic and trade 
Toutes, which had developed in the Bronze Age from the 



earlier Neolithic beginnings. We must first ask ourselves, 
why it is we find these big movements of men, because, leaving 
on one side the adventurous few, the general run of people do 
not move until they are pushed. In the Old Stone Age, man 
moved because he was a hunter, and had to follow the chase 
to live, and in the same way, even when he had settled down, 
he could not be sure of a permanent home, unless it was 
accompanied by a perennial food supply ; if this failed, then 
he had to break fresh ground. If food was one of the reasons 
for his moving, he naturally went away from the crowded 
central area, or falling on his neighbours compelled them to 
do so. Wars have played a terrible part in migrations ; we 
shall see in our time great movements of people, as a result 
of the 1914-1918 struggle. The study of these movements 
is of great value as bearing on the original homes of men. 
That is why the archaeologists continually do dig ; they are 
hunting for first causes. 

Geography will help us to discover the natural causes of 
man's movements on certain lines. On p. 14, Part I., we 
referred to the Loess land. Loess is a sandy, chalky loam, 
■deposited at first as dust blown by great blizzards from the 
glaciers in the Ice Ages. This loess is in a broad zone, which, 
starting from the Ural Mountains, stretches across South 
Russia to the Carpathians, and the Danube, then through 
North-West Austria to South Germany, and the North of 
France. It is shown by dots on Fig. 64. The fine grain of the 
loess prevented the spread of forests, and became instead the 
great grasslands which have played so considerable a part in 
the development of Europe. Here have been bred great hordes 
of men, who in times of drought, or when the regions became 
overpopulated, have descended on the ancient civilization of 
the East, and caused movements of men. In the same way, 
the Arabian Desert has been a great reservoir of hardy people, 
who periodically have made exodus, with terrible happenings 
to their prosperous neighbours, or have been bribed to keep 
'the peace. 

The problem which confronts such a people is similar to 
that of the hill-tribes of the N.W. frontier of India. Here 
the Mohmands, Afridis, Wazirs, and Mahsuds, perched on 
the barren hills, can only live by levying tribute on the 
caravans passing from the fat lands. Here through the 
great land gate of the Kyber Pass, through all the ages, immi- 



grants have gone into India. The Aryans, and Alexander : 
all travelled on this line until we forced a new way by sea. 

If along a certain line similar kinds of pottery or stone 
monuments are found, it is fair to assume that these are the 
v/ork of a particular type of people moving along this line. 
If in Bronze Age barrows, we find gold from Ireland, glass 
or beads from the Mediterranean, amber from Scandinavia, or 
in an Early Iron Age cemetery at Aylesford in Kent, a bronze 
flagon from North Italy, it points to trade and trade routes. 
We may be sure that salt was traded. 

We have already written, on page lo, of one of the earliest 
migrations, that of the Mediterranean people ; on page 1 1 , of the 
first of the round -heads ; on page 12, of the arrival of the Beaker 
people ; and, on page 1 2, of the movements of the Aryan-speak- 
ing peoples. This brings up another factor of great importance 
in the lives of men, and one which is not concerned so much 
with their movement, as with the circulation of some great 
idea that acted as a lever, and caused them to alter their mode 
of living. The wonderful drawings and paintings of the 
Aurignacian and Magdalenian periods, in the Old Stone Age, 
which we discussed in Part I., and the Megalithic buildings 
of the New Stone Age, were wrought around some central 
inspiration ; again, in the latter half of the Bronze Age, the 
prophets Avere at work, and we find the introduction, by the 
Aryan-speaking peoples, of cremation and all that it may have 
implied. The Minoan civilization was centred in the island 
of Crete, the home of Minos, and then transferred to Mycenae 
on the mainland of Greece. The Cretans were of the 
Mediterranean stock ; and if reference is made to the chart 
on pages xi, xii, it will be seen that final catastrophe over- 
whelmed them about 1000 B.C. Their buildings were mega- 
lithic, and they did not cremate their dead. While the 
Minoan civilization was dying, we hear of the beginnings of the 
Heroic period of the Hellenes. Jason, Agamemnon, Hector, 
and Odysseus are typical of wild men who came from the N., 
finding their way down from the grasslands shown on Fig. 64, 
and they were an Aryan-speaking people who cremated their 
dead. The Achaeans were followed by the Dorians, and in 
the end a glorious civilization was destroyed in Greece ; but 
its renaissance was so wonderful that to-day we accept its 
ideas and philosophy as a standard of quality against which 
we measure our own. This, of course, is all beyond the scope 




Fir.. 64. — Traffic and Trade Routes. 

of our book, but it must be kept in the backgrounds of our 
minds ; meanwhile we will go back to our trade routes. 

If the Mediterranean men found their way through Gaul, 
on a line i, 2, 3, Fig. 64, a later route seems to have been 
from Marseilles (Massilia) at 4, by the Rhone Valley to 
Chalons, where it divided into three lines j one to the W. 
down the Loire to 2, the second around the Paris basin at 5, 
and the third through the Belfort Gap, between the Vosges 
and Jura Mountains, and down the Rhine at 6. This latter 
route is an important one, because it mingled people coming 
up from the Mediterranean, with another type coming from 
the regions to the N. of the European and Asiatic Mountains. 

Prof. Fleure, in his paper on the Racial History of the 
British People, thinks that the Beaker people came from 
Kiev on the Dnieper, S. of the Pinsk Marshes (7, Fig. 64), and 
in Mr. Crawford's paper on the Bronze Age Settlements, 



we find a map of the localities in which their distinctive pottery- 
has been found ; at 8, on the tributaries of the March in 
Moravia ; on the Bohemian tributaries of the Elbe by Prague ; 
around the junction of the Saale and Elbe at lo ; the mouth 
of the Oder at 1 1 ; on the Zuyder Zee at 12 ; and again at the 
junction of the Rhine and Main at 6. Mr. Crawford shows 
how pottery beakers of the same type are found on our 
eastern coasts from Caithness to Kent, and also found on 
the W. coast of Scotland. 

The W. coast of Denmark, and the S. Baltic, supplied 
amber during the Bronze Age, and the B.M. Guide Book 
for that period gives the two main trade routes through 
Germany to the Adriatic. One started from Venice at 13, 
Fig. 64, up the valley of the Adige, through the Brenner 
Pass, down the Inn to Passau on the Danube, at 14, and 
then by way of the Moldau to the Elbe, and so by the line 
9, 10 to Denmark. The second route was from Trieste to 
Laibach and Graz, then to Pressburg on the Danube (15, 
Fig. 64), from there up the River March, across Moravia 
and through Silesia, along the Oder at 16, then across Posen 
to the Vistula, and Dantzig at 17. The spiral design of the 
Bronze Age found in Scotland, Cumberland, Lancashire, 
Northumberland, S. Ireland, and Merionethshire, and which 
was common in Egyptian and ^gean art, is supposed to 
have found its way here on the first of these two routes. 

We can now pass from land journeys to sea voyages, and 
we will work back from Caesar's time. It was the Veneti, 
maritime tribesmen occupying what is now Vannes Morbihan, 
in Brittany, who formed a confederation of the tribes in N. 
and N.W. Gaul against the Romans. The Veneti seems to 
have controlled the trade with Britain, and possessed a fleet 
of large ships with leathern sails, high poops, and towers, 
but did not use oars, which was the reason they were beaten 
on a calm day by the Romans. 

If we go back again to the time of Pytheas of Marseilles, 
about 330 B.C., we find that he sailed to Britain, and there 
was in his time a regular trade between Cornwall and Marseilles, 
and probably a sea-borne trade between Cornwall and Cadiz 
(Gades) (18, Fig. 64), which was a centre of the tin trade. 
From Cape Finisterre, Pytheas sailed E. along the N, of 
Spain to Corbilo at 2, on the mouth of the Loire, past Ushant 
to Land's End (Belerium), where he landed. He sailed all 


TIN Bronze 

round Britain, and attempted an estimate of its circumference 
and indicated the position of Ireland. Long before this, as 
we have just seen, the Beaker people came across the North 
Sea, and settled on our East Coast ; so even the prehistoric 
period had its great seamen and sea-faring traditions. 

This enables us to take up the question of the position of 
the Cassiterides (from the Greek word for tin, cassiteros), or 
the tin islands of the ancients : were they really islands ?- 
The Greeks and Romans obtained tin from Galicia (19, Fig. 64), 
Cornwall, and possibly the Scilhes, but the main supply was 
from Cornwall, and possibly it is the British Isles which were 
the Cassiterides. 

Pytheas says tin was conveyed by the people of Belerium 
in wagons, at low tide from the mainland, to the island of 
Ictis, where it was purchased by merchants, carried to Gaul, 
and transported on pack-horses to Marseilles, the overland 
journey taking thirty days. To start with there has been 
considerable doubt as to the locality of Ictis ; some think 
it was S. Michael's Mount, others the Isle of Wight or Thanet. 
The tin must have been mined in Cornwall, and it would 
have meant a long overland journey to the two latter places. 

We have seen there were good sailors, and the general 
weight of evidence inclines us to accept Dr. Rice Holmes' 
view, that the tin was shipped at S. Michael's Mount, close 
to where it was mined. The fact that the Veneti formed 
the confederation against Caesar points to a predominance 
based on trade, and they may have controlled the tin trafi&c, 
in which case Corbilo (2, Fig. 64) would have been a natural 
place for unshipment. 

From Corbilo to Marseilles is approximately 500 miles on 
2, I, 4 line, which means nearly 17 miles a day for the pack- 
horses on the thirty days' journey. The tin was cast into 
ingots, of the shape of ankle bones, and 2 = load for a 

Britain has always been rich in metals. Copper is found 
in Cornwall, Cardiganshire, Anglesey, Llandudno, and in 
Ireland. Tin in Cornwall and on Dartmoor. Prehistoric 
man would have obtained his copper from boulders, or found 
lumps of ore on the hillside, and tin from the gravel beds of 
streams. Ireland was El Dorado of the Old World, and gold 
was found in the Wicklow Hills as late as 1795. It was 
shipped across to Carnarvonshire, or the mouth of the Mersey,, 



and from there found its way down by way of Shrewsbury, 
Craven Arms, Wootton Bassett, Sarum, and a deeper and 
more navigable Avon to Christchurch, and so across to 
Cherbourg. Another route appears to have been from the 
Mersey, across the Peak District to Peterborough and the 
Wash, where it was shipped to Denmark and North Germany. 

Mr. Crawford's paper on Early Bronze Age Settlements is 
an interesting illustration of how, by mapping the finds of 
bronze implements, and gold ornaments, trade routes are 
established. Sea-borne traffic is shown by the large number 
of hoards of bronze implements, found near the seacoast, 
and around the estuaries of navigable rivers. Dechelette 
proved the same thing in France. 

Going right back to Neolithic or perhaps Palaeolithic days, 
we find that flints were mined at Grime's Graves (Grime=the 
devil) in Brandon and at Cissbury near Worthing, and appar- 
ently only roughly chipped there and then exported to be 
finished elsewhere. They must have been carried along the 
trackways to the hill forts. These old trackways have 
interesting names. The Ridgeway comes from Fenland 
along the Dunstable Downs to Berkshire, the White Horse, 
and the Marlborough Downs ; there is the Harroway coming 
from Cornwall, and finding its way through Hampshire to the 
Thames estuary ; and the Pilgrims' Way, along the southern 
slopes of the North Downs, was an old road long before men 
tramped its surface to Becket's shrine at Canterbury. 

Here we must attempt to sum up what we have found out 
about the Bronze Age. The introduction of metal opened up 
new activities for man, and especially new opportunities for 
the individual. The Neolithic man toiled with antler pick 
and shoulder-blade shovel, and piled earth in the banked 
camps. He chipped sarsen stones, and fidgeted them into 
the upright position of menhirs and dolmens. It was patient 
team work in which every one laboured for the community. 
He needs must move from camp to camp to find pasture for 
his flocks. In much the same way primitive peoples like 
the Tasmanians, Australian aborigines, and the Eskimo are 
fully occupied in hunting to live ; they have not any leisure 
for fighting, or any possessions to fight for. When every- 
thing has to be carried about, the lighter you travel the 

The earlier round-heads appear to have been powerful, 



and may have been a pleasant people ; we have seen that 
they were buried side by side in the same barrows with the 
older stock of Neolithic long-heads, and this points to friendly 
I conditions. These early round-heads carried on the build- 
' ing traditions of the New Stone Age ; the hill camps were 
' improved, and they may have had some hand in the com- 
pletion of Stonehenge, but hardly a trace of bronze has been 
found there. 

As metal began to be more plentiful, larger clearings were 
; made in the forests, and man began to settle down. He could 
grow more crops and keep more cattle ; he began to have 
possessions. This was the opportunity for the individual ; 
\ if a man was harder working than his fellows or more far- 
seeing, cleverer or more frugal, he could become a man of 
I property, and, founding a family, become the chieftain. The 
j tribe was gradually forged into a nation, and the chieftain 
1 became a petty king. 

We may be sure that this wider life brought in its train 
a set of problems which had not confronted the Neolithic 
herdsmen. As man began to have more possessions, he 
became alarmed for the safety of his own, or envious of those 
of others. The elaborate planning of the later hill forts 
points to the necessity for being prepared to withstand raids, 
and it may be that we must look to the Bronze Age for the 
beginnings of organized warfare. 

A people who could plan earth-banks in so subtle a 
fashion as the entrances of Maiden Castle, Dorchester, give 
proof of being able to work together, and so may have 
attempted, in a gradual way, to solve the problem of the 
right mode of living. Without some code or tradition, the 
community of a hill fort would have degenerated into a 
rabble. We shall find as we go along that man is tre- 
mendously concerned with this, and seeks many ways for 
his own government. We shall not be far wrong if we picture 
the Bronze Age people as living, like the Homeric Greeks, 
under kings and nobles, yet given some share in the framing 
of the law. 



HERE we must start by another reminder : that at the 
beginning of the Early Iron Age, which first saw the 
introduction of that metal, men did not pack up 
all their old bronze implements and bury them in hoards, 
to at once arm themselves with iron. It was, on the contrary, 
a very gradual change over, and for a long time both bronze 
and iron were used side by side. This was so at Hallstatt 
in the Noric Alps of the Austrian Tyrol. Here there have been 
salt mines from the earliest times, and it must have been an 
important trading centre. Excavations have been carried 
out in the cemetery of the salt miners, and the implements 
found there have been held to be distinctive of the civilization 
at the beginning of the Early Iron Age, when bronze was still 
in use. 

The second half of the Early Iron Age is held to be most 
typically shown by implements which have been recovered 
from an old settlement, built on piles, on the margin of a 
bay on Lake Neuchatel, near Marin, to which the name of 
La Tene or the Shallows, has been given. The finest de- 
velopments of the Early Iron Age are to be found in this 
country, since it fell under Rome's influence at a later date 
than the Continent ; in the same way the Iron Age, or Late 
Celtic tradition, survived in Ireland and parts of Scotland 
which were never occupied by the Romans. 

The people of England had become very mixed racially. 
On page lo we sketched the order of the arrivals of the different 
peoples ; and just as bronze overlapped the use of iron, so the 
old peoples carried on their everyday life and were not always 
exterminated by the new-comers or even dispossessed of their 
lands. We saw how, in the early Round Barrows, the later 
round-heads were buried side by side with the earlier long- 
headed Iberians. 

The next arrivals were the Goidels, or first of the Celtic- 
speaking peoples. On page 14 we mentioned the generally 
accepted theory that they were driven into the W. by their 
successors, the Brythons, who were related to them and spoke 
another variety of the Celtic language. This is now being 
given up, and it is thought that there were never any Goidels 




in England or Wales, but that they went directly to Ireland, 
the Isle of Man, and Scotland, where their Celtic descendants 
still live. 

The Brythons were followed by the Belgae, who, while 
they were responsible for the finest developments of what we 
now call Late Celtic art, were not themselves of pure Celtic 
stock. They came from where Belgium now is, and had 
more Nordic blood than their predecessors ; they were a half- 
Teutonic and fierce fighting people. 

We saw on page 58 how the people of the Heathery Burn 
Cave were of long-headed stock, which yet had absorbed a 
Bronze civilization. Much the same thing occurs in the Iron 
Age at Glastonbury lake village, and we shall base our 
illustrations of the period on the houses and implements 
discovered there. 

On page 103, Part I., we referred to the Azilian dwellings, built 
over the water. In Neolithic times this idea was developed, 
and in Switzerland there were dwellings built on the margins 
of lakes. They were first discovered at Ober-Meilen, Lake 
Ziirich, in 1853, and this started research, and the discovery 
of similar structures in different parts of Europe. These 
may be divided into three types, (i) The Swiss dwellings, 
built on platforms formed on the tops of piles driven into 
the lake bed, which date from the Neolithic and Bronze Ages 
and resembled in form those which are now built by the 
inhabitants of New Guinea. (2) Another type in which, 
instead of pile foundations, large open framings resembling 
log huts were sunk in the lake and steadied by piles, much like 
the modern caisson used by engineers for foundations. Dwell- 
ings of this type were built in France and Germany during 
the Early Iron Age. (3) The type like Glastonbury and the 
Scottish and Irish Crannogs. These were really small islands 
formed in the middle of marshes, and being stockaded around, 
were raised above the flood-level by earth brought from out- 
side ; but the foundation was quaking bog, which, as we shall 
see at Glastonbury, gave the inhabitants a great deal of 
trouble. These date from the Early Iron Age, and continued 
to be occupied in remote spots, as places of refuge, until the 
seventeenth century. 

As the Swiss lakes became overpopulated, people moved 
downhill into the Po valley, and here are found the settle- 
ments which are called Terremare, from terra mama, or marl 


Early Iron 

Fig. 66. — Hut Interior at Glastonbury. 


earth. The peasants discovered that the earth from these old 
settlements was valuable for agricultural purposes, and in 
carting it away came across antiquities which disclosed the 

There are literary references to lake dwellings. Caesar 
said, writing of the Morini (a Belgic tribe in Gaul, opposite 
Kent): " They had no place to which they might retreat, on 
account of the drying up of their marshes (which they had 
availed themselves of as a place of refuge the preceding year), 
and almost all fell into the power of Labienus " {Com. iv. c. 38). 

Venice itself, the Queen of the Adriatic, is a glorified crannog 
which started as a place of refuge. " They little thought, 
who first drove the stakes into the sand, and strewed the 
ocean reeds for their rest, that their children were to be the 
princes of that ocean, and their palaces its pride." 

Hereward the Wake maintained himself, in the last stand 
against the Norman, in the marshy recesses of the Isle of Ely. 

Now we come to the interesting way by which we in 
England came to be provided with a lake village of our own. 
Mr. Arthur Bulleid of Glastonbury, when he was a young 
man, read Keller's Swiss Lake Dwellings, and was fired with 
the idea that there must have been a lake village in the olden 
days in the swamps near Glastonbury. Remember that in 
this neighbourhood there is the tradition of Arthur and his 
knights and the Isle of Avalon : 

" The island valley of Avilion, 
Where falls not hail or rain, or any snow, 
Nor ever wind blows loudly." 

So whenever Mr. Bulleid went on his walks abroad he 
kept a wide-open eye for any indications of a possible site for 
a lake village. This was in the end discovered by the mounds 
which had been left where the hut foundations were, and 
though in the course of 2000 years or more the land had been 
drained, and became covered with vegetable soil and turf, 
yet these mounds were still noticeable to the observant eye. 
In the molehills were found pieces of bone and charcoal, and 
when Mr. Bulleid made a trial hole he came across more 
charcoal, some pottery, and two oak beams. Again, a labour- 
ing man, David Cox by name, told Mr. Bulleid that when he 
had been cleaning out a ditch about three-quarters of a mile 
away, in 1884, he had found a black oak beam embedded in the 



Early Iron 

KiKuycr Mur 





Y/iiAGE Bar. 

Fig. 67. — Hut Sections. 

soil, and had to cut a piece ofE it to widen the ditch. Cox 
reported that this beam looked like the end of a boat, and this 
is what it turned out to be, and it is shown in Fig. 69. So 
Mr. BuUeid's dream had come true, and he had found his 
lake vUlage. Excavations were started in 1892, since when 
the village has been thoroughly explored, and in 191 1 a 
splendidly detailed account was published in book form by 
Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr. Harold St. George Gray. Boys 
and girls should endeavour to see these volumes, which are 
models of how such work should be done. 

Fig. 65 gives a bird's-eye view of the village. The area 
was about 10,530 square yards, and the foundations of the 
enclosed space were reinforced with layers of logs, laid down 
crossways, and filled in with brushwood, stones, and clay, 
but it could never have been what the land agents describe 
as a " desirable building site." During the time that Glaston- 
bury was occupied, a bed of peat accumulated in some places 
5 feet thick, and the inhabitants were constantly rebuilding. 



The village was palisaded around, with piles driven into the 
peat, and filled in with wattle and daub. This method was 
also used in the construction of the huts — there were 80 to 
90 of these, roughly circular in shape, and varying from 1 8 feet 
to 28 feet in diameter ; they may not all have been houses ; 
some were probably used as barns or workshops. The huts 
contained a central hearth, as Fig. 66, of flat stones let into 
a clay bed, and as many as 9 or 10 hearths have been found 
added one on the top of the other, as the foundations settled 
do^vn into the bog. The wattled walls of the huts were 
daubed with clay ; this is knov^Ti because pieces of clay 
sho%\-ing the marks of the wattles were discovered in the 
excavations. Each hut had a central pole or roof-tree, than 
this we can gather little more. 

We have to look to a primitive people, then, to find parallel 
building traditions. The Akiku^ni, of the Kikuyu hill country-, 
in British East Africa, build to-day, and live in houses which 
must be the Uving spit of those at Glastonbury. Fig. 67 
shows these on the left hand-side of the section, and on the 
right is the suggested form of the Glastonbury hut. We have 
made this drawing from the plan and carefully detailed 
particulars in Mr. and Mrs. Routledge's book, With a Pre- 
historic People. It is an interesting fact that the construc- 
tional problem which the Akikuyii have to face, when they 
build their huts, is similar to the one which confronted Wren 
when he designed the dome of S. Paul's Cathedral. 

We have seen how Neolithic man built httle houses with 
rafters leaning against a central pole, and this was a very 
sound method. So long as the feet of the rafters were firmly 
fixed into the soil, the house stood firm, in gales and under a 
load of snow ; the drawback was that there was no headroom 
around the walls, and so one had to sit there as you do now 
in a bell-tent. A wall was raised around to give headroom, 
as Fig. 19, and this was satisfactory so long as the wall was 
built of stones heavy enough to provide a sufficient abutment 
for the thrust of the rafters. The trouble came when the 
same idea was attempted with thin wooden walls, which 
would have been overturned. 

The Akikuyu first set up about iQ forked posts in holes 
dug in a circle of about 15 feet diameter. To appreciate 
the cleverness of the construction, you must remember that 
none of the wood is bigger than a man's arm. Four posts 

Early Iron 



are set up on an oblong in the centre about 4 feet 6 inches by 
3 feet. Around the tops of the outer posts, long phant rods 
axe woven, and these form the wall plate, and take the thrust 
of the roof. Again ties are woven from this wall plate across 
from side to side, picking up the tops of the centre posts on 
the way. Wren took up the thrust of the brick cone which 
supports the dome and lantern at S. Paul's, by an iron ship's 
cable, which was let into the stone, and run in with molten 
lead. We think the rest of the construction of the Akiku^-Ti 
hut is explained by the drawing. 

At Glastonbur\- there were also found remains of an earUer 
type of hut, built with wall plates resting on the tops of piles 
driven into the peat. The huts were apparently oblong in 
shape, with hurdled walls mortised to the wall plates. Of 
these we cannot attempt any reconstruction, but of the 
circular huts we can be more sure, and it seems fair to assume, 
from what we know, that they resembled those of the Akiku\ii. 

This building in wattle and daub continued as a tradition 
in Glastonbur\-. WiUiam of Malmesbun,-, writing in the 
twelfth century- a.d., mentions the " Ealde Chirche," the 
ancient church of S. Mar\- of Glastonbury-, built in the seventh 
centun.- of wattlework. 

We know that the Glastonbun,- people used canoes, for 
one was found by Da\-id Cox, to which reference has been 
made, and some form of canoes would have been absolutely 
neces5ar\- to the inhabitants of the \-illage. Judged by the 
peat deposit, aU this district around the river Brue must 
have been a vast morass in the olden days, and in times of 
flood an inland sea. The canoe (Fig. 69) is of the greatest 
interest, about 18 feet long; the flat bottom is 2 feet wide, 
10 feet from the prow, and its maximum depth inside is 
12 inches. It is becoming boat-hke, and shows a notable 
development on Fig. 6, ha\-ing a shapeable prow, and a graceful 
rise, or sheer, at bow and stem. The lake \-illager3 had a 
landing-stage and dock attached to their home, vertical 
walls made of stout grooved oak planks driven into the peat, 
into which were fitted horizontal boards, as Fig. 69. We 
know they went fishing, because lead net sinkers have been 
found. Their canoes would have been used to take them to 
their cornfields on the mainland, the island \-illage had no 
room for these. Fig. 70 shows a piece of timber found at 
Glastonbury, and shaped in such a way that it is thought it 


Eam,t Iron 




Fig. 70. — Ploughing. 

may have been used as a hand plough, but we are very doubt- 
ful of its suitability for this. Many querns and millstones 
have been found : the earher type as Fig. 22, and the later 
rotary types as Fig. 71. In these the lower stone was fixed, and 
had a wooden pivot in the centre. The top stone was fitted 
over this, and corn fed through the hole, made large enough 
to allow it, passed down, and was ground between the upper 
and lower millstones, coming out at the sides as flour. Small 
cakes were found at Glastonbury, made of unground wheat 
grains which had been mixed probably with honey and baked. 

The villagers also 
owned horses ; many 
harness fittings have 
been found, bits, and 
the wheels of chariots. 
Whether the horses 
were transported to 
the mainland on rafts 
or stabled there we 
cannot be sure. In the 
summer they may have 
been pastured on the 
mainland, within the 
protection of a camp, 
and in the winter 
ferried across to the 
village to share the huts 
with the inhabitants. 
The people doubtless 

Fig. 71. — Grinding Com. 



Early Iron 

Fig. 72. — Smeltinc; Iron. 

used their canoes to carry on trade with the surplus goods 
which they manufactured and wished to exchange for other 
commodities. The two iron currency bars found point to 
this (see p. 1 12). 

When we pass to the life carried on within the village, we 
have proof of many and varied activities, but it will perhaps 
be well to start by a description of the iron working, which 
gives the period its name. 

Fireclay crucibles have been found at Glastonbury, and 
funnels (tuyere) for conducting the blast into the furnace, 
but it is thought that the crucibles were used for melting 
copper and tin, to make bronze, as described on page 54. 

So far as iron working was concerned, it is probable that 
this was carried out as the present-day smelting operations 
of the Akikuyu of British East Africa, which we have shown 
in Fig. 72. The iron ore is collected from surface workings 
in the form of an iron sand ; this is washed to get rid of the 
clay and other substances, so that the iron grains are left. 
The furnace consists of a kidney-shaped hole in the ground 
lined with clay. The ore is placed in the pit of the furnace, 
and a charcoal fire started, then more ore and charcoal are 
added as needed. The blast is introduced at one end of the 
furnace, which is slightly lower than the middle, by means 
of a fireclay funnel (tuyere). In the funnel are introduced the 
wooden pipes of the bellows, which are in this way protected 



Fig. 73. — Saw and Adze. 

from the fire. Two bellows are used, of goats' skins sewn 
into the shapes of rough cones, or fools' caps, the pipes being 

attached to the small 
ends. At the larger 
ends of the bellows, 
which are open, are 
fitted two short sticks, 
sewn to the skins, but 
leaving one-third of the 
circumference free. The 
smiths' boy holding the 
two sticks of the two 
bellows, two in each 
hand, opens first one 
bellow, as if the sticks 
were hinged at one end, 
and then the other, 
and closing the open- 
ing by shutting his 
hand, depresses the 
sticks, and kneads the 

Fig. 74. — An Iron Knife. 



Early Iron 

k-. iXe -^ 

Fig. 75. — Bronze 

ends of the bellows, sending forward a con- 
tinuous blast into the furnace. This blast 
raises the temperature of the furnace, just as 
a fire is brightened up by ordinary bellows. 
The ore is reduced to a sticky mass rather 
than molten metal ; furnaces which will 
generate a suf&cient heat to make the metal 
flow, only date from the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and we do not find any cast iron before 
then. The lump of iron is left in the furnace 
overnight to cool, and then turned out in 
the morning, and broken up into sizeable pieces which are 
forged up into ingots or blooms. This iron is very pure, and 
ductile, and so can be readily forged ; being smelted with 
charcoal it is free from the sulphur which comes from coal 
when it is used, and which makes the iron short and brittle. 
The fireclay crucibles we have referred to were buried in a 
hole in the ground, and the fire and blast arranged as in the 
case of the iron smelting. 

In Messrs. BuUeid and Gray's book are shown illustrations 
of all the finds in the excavations, and here we can see daggers, 
spear-heads, swords, knives, bill-hooks, sickles, saws, gouges, 
adzes, files, bolts, nails, rivets, keys, 
and bits. The weapons are few and far 
between, and this is perhaps one of the 
reasons the villagers fell an easy prey to 
their enemies in the end. The man in 
Fig. 66 is holding an iron bill-hook in 
his hand, of a quite modern shape ; and 
Fig. "j-^ shows one man using a curiously 
shaped saw, with the teeth arranged so 
that it cuts on the up-stroke, while the 
other has an adze, which is first cousin 
to the axe. Fig. 74 shows a man using- 
a particularly beautiful iron knife found 
at Glastonbury. 

Leaving iron working, we can turn tO' 
bronze, which still continued in use in 
the Early Iron Age as it does to-day. 

Fig. 75 shows a bronze finger-ring, and 
Fig. 76 a penannular (almost a ring) 
brooch. The top drawing shows how 


Fig. 76. — Penannular 


the pin, which was loose on the ring, was pushed through the 
material, and then fastened by moving the ring round a 
little, and clipping it under the pin. This form of brooch 
was the forerunner of the buckle. 

Fig. TJ shows three bronze brooches, or fibulce. These 
fastenings came into use in the Swiss and Italian lake 
villages when cloth was first woven. The three examples 
drawn here, show the development of these pretty little 
things, which the archaeologists associate \vith the lake 
village of La Tene, on the lake of Neuchatel, and are called 
types I, 2, and 3, though only type 2 occurs at La Tene itself. 
In No. I the foot is bent back until it touches the bow of the 
brooch. In No. 2 the end is no longer free but actually attached 
to the bow, and in No. 3 the foot and bow are designed as one. 

On the right-hand side of Fig. 77 we have drawn the de- 
velopment of the springs of these brooches, and in each case 
the pin of the brooch is shown vertically. In those of Hall- 
statt the springs are on one side of the head ; those of La 
Tene are bilateral. No. i shows the earliest type, like that of 
a safety-pin of to-day ; so our old friend is of ancient descent. 
No. 2 has a double coil ; and in 3 the pin has one coil to the right, 
and the wire is then carried to the left, where, after a treble coil, 
it swings up to form the bow of the brooch. In 4 there is a 
double coil on one side, and in 5 a treble coil, but the tension 
is increased by the ingenious way in which the loop or chord 
across is taken under the arch of the bow ; the whole pin — 
coils, loop, and bow of the brooch — being in one unbroken 
length. In 6 we have pin and coils to the right, the loop or 
chord and the coils on the left in one piece ; but the bow is a 
separate part which is hooked under the chord. No. 8 is on 
the same principle, but the spring is covered with a metal sheath 
attached to the bow. In 7 the bow is fixed on to a smaller 
loop. We consider these springs of the greatest importance : 
I dates from perhaps as early as 1400 B.C., and 8 takes us 
up to the Roman occupation, and, so far as we know, i is the 
first application of the spring. The old brooch-maker who, 
in 1400 B.C., tapped his bronze wire around a rod and dis- 
covered the spring, would have been rather surprised if he 
could have looked into the future and seen the many ways 
to which his invention would be applied ; for example, that 
we should tell the time by little spring-driven machines, 
which we call watches. 



Early Iron 

Fig. 77. — Brooches and Brooch Springs. 

There were excellent potters at Glastonbury, and Fig. 66 
shows some of the pottery found there. The greater part of 
it appears to have been hand-made, as described on page 26, 
but the very beautiful pot in the foreground has been turned 
on some sort of wheel. We saw (p. 25) how the Akikuyu 
build up their pots on a pad of leaves, which makes it possible 
to turn the pot round as it is being made, and it is probable 
that the potter's wheel was preceded by a turn-table, on the 
lines of the rotary quern (Fig. 71). If a heavy block of stone 
or wood were pivoted in this way, its weight would aid the 
momentum of its spin and be very helpful in making pottery. 
This early type is suggested at A, Fig. 87. 

Spinning and Weaving 

Spinning and weaving were carried on in the village, and 
the spindle whorls and loom weights suggest that this work 
was done as already described on page 60. 


There were expert coopers at Glastonbury, who knew how 
to build up tubs with wooden staves and hoops. They were 
G 97 


good turners. There is a turned bowl, shown in the lower 
right-hand corner of Fig. 66, which was decorated in addition 
with a beautiful running pattern cut in an incised line. There 
is no evidence of what the Glastonbury lathe was like, but Fig. 78 
shows a very primitive type in one in the Chilterns, called the 
Pole Lathe. It is difficult to see how anything could be 
simpler than this, and it is obviously a development from the 
Bow-drill shown on page "ji. Part I. In the Chilterns the men 
who make chair legs buy a fall of beech in the woods, and to 
save cartage build themselves little huts and turn the chair 
legs there. The supports for the lathe are often two trees 
growing close together, which they cut down at a height 
suitable for the two planks forming the bed of the lathe, into 
which the poppet heads are fixed. A third sapling is bent 
down, and the cord, which is to supply the " power," is 
fastened to this, passed around the chair leg, and connected 
to the treadle under. A rough tool-rest is provided. The 
turning is done on the down stroke, which revolves the chair leg 
towards the turner, and when he takes the pressure off the 
treadle, the pole pulls it up again ready for another cut. The 
work proceeds very rapidly, and we have seen chair legs 
turned, one in a minute. 

In our sketch we have shown the turner making a wooden 
bowl, like the ones which were used before the days of 
enamelled iron. The block of wood was placed directly 
against one centre of the lathe, and on the other side came a 
circular piece of wood, around which the cord was passed ; 
this was put on to the other centre of the lathe and fixed to 
the block for the bowl by four brads. This, we think, shows 
that the so-called Kimmeridge Coal-money is the core left 
from turning shale bracelets on pole lathes. Coal-money is 
found near the Kimmeridge shale beds on the Dorset coast, 
and consists of circular discs, having a hole on one side, and 
a square recess or two or three smaller holes on the other. 
The diagram at the bottom of Fig. 78 shows how we think a 
shale bracelet was turned on a pole lathe. AA are the 
poppet heads, and BB the centres, C is the circular piece 
of wood around which the cord was passed, fitted on to one 
centre, and let into one side of the piece of shale, in a square 
recess, or by two or three separate pins. The shale being 
in contact with the other centre. The turner trued up his 
bracelet, and set its outside shape first, and then making a 


Early Iron 

Fig. 78. — A Pole Lathe. 


Fig. 79. — Dice. 

cut on each face, finally detached it as dotted line D, and 
the Kimmeridge coal-money was the useless core, and never 
used as money. One great advantage of these old pole 
lathes was that the turner could make two or three bowls in 
graduating sizes from the same block of wood. 

The Glastonbury carpenters used axes, and we do not 
realize in these days what a useful tool this can be, that is, if 
you are a craftsman and not a wood butcher. Alex. Beazeley, 
a pleasant architect, and most architects are pleasant, wrote 
in 1882, that the Swedish carpenters at Dalcarlia and Norr- 
land, " require no other tools than the axe and the auger, 
and despise the saw and plane as contemptible innovations, 
fit only for those unskilful in the handling of the nobler 
instruments : they will trim and square a log forty feet long 
as true as if it had been cut in the sawmill, and will dress it to 
a face that cannot be distinguished from planed work." As 
we jog along we shall find the truth of this, that so long as 
man is master of his tools we get good work, but when the 
machine masters the man we have indifferent results. 

Fig. 79 shows that there were bad boys at Glastonbury, 
or perhaps men, who gambled with dice. 

The form of lake villages suggests that they were built 
by timorous people, living in fear of fiercer neighbours. They 
appear to have had their beginnings with the long-headed 
Mediterranean race, or Iberians of the New Stone Age. This 


IBERIANS Early Iron 

is borne out at Glastonbury. The burial-place of the in- 
habitants has not been discovered, but during the excavations 
human remains were found of this old Iberic type, which, 
here in the W., had lived on, and kept themselves free from 
intermarriage with the round-headed invaders of the Bronze 
Age. They were small and dark — 5 feet 3 inches to 5 feet 
8 inches in height. Oval-headed, with a cephalic index of 76, 
which makes them of mesaticephalic type (see p. 24, Part I.). 
The same race lived at Worlebury Camp, at the W. end of 
the trackway on the Mendips, and in Romano-British times 
in the villages of Woodcuts, Rotherley, and Woodyates, in 
Cranbourne Chase, down to Saxon times. 

At Glastonbury their fears held true, and some little time 
before the Roman occupation, final disaster descended on the 
village, and they were put to the sword : perhaps by the 
Belgic invaders, who were long-heads, but of an altogether 
tougher fighting breed. Caesar {Com. v. c. 43) tells us how 
the Nervii, when attacking Cicero's camp, set fire to the 
thatch of the huts, by discharging redhot clay sling bullets. 
Many of these were found at Glastonbury, and help us to 
visualize the final scene. We have noted that very few arms 
were found in the excavations, and the little dark men only 
wanted to be left quietly alone, and be allowed to get on with 
their work ; and this is what they did until they were dis- 
covered. Then their outlying possessions and crops would 
have been destroyed and the village surrounded. The 
Glastonbury men could only have watched the scene, in 
shuddering misery, from behind their stockades, and then the 
invaders, using perhaps the dug-outs they had collected from 
the waterside, would have paddled across the lake, and dis- 
charging their redhot clay bullets have fired the thatch. 
When the flames subsided, the few survivors would have been 
put to the sword. Yet the little dark men have had their 
revenge ; from the very start of their career they appear to 
have lived in communities ; it may have been a tradition 
they brought with them from the shores of the Mediterranean. 
The Belgae who oppressed them, like the later Anglo-Saxons, 
whom they resembled, preferred a more open-air hfe, and to- 
day their fair-haired descendants have the same tastes. 

Prof. Fleure, in his paper on the Racial History of the British 
People, sums up the matter thus : " These descendants of the 
Neolithic people are the long-headed, long-faced, dark-haired, 



Early Iron 

Fig. 8i. — Framework of Umiak. 

brown-eyed people that form so strong an element of the 
population of big English cities. They seem better able than 
all other types to withstand slum conditions, so that in the 
second generation of great city life they have arisen in their 
millions to form once more, after many days, almost a 
majority, perhaps, of the population of S. Britain." So the 
tale of the Iberians is not yet completed. 

We have seen how fond the ancient Britons were of wattle- 
work, and on page 90 how it was used even for the construction 
of churches. Boats were made in this way, and Fig. 80 shows 
a coracle, of which the wattled framework was covered with 
hide ; coracles are still in occasional use by fishermen on Welsh 
rivers. Primitive peoples frequently make boats in this way. 
Fig. 81 shows the framework of the Umiak, or women's boat 
of the Eskimo, made of driftwood, laced together with thongs. 

Fig. 82. — Eskimo Umiak. 


A Sewn Bark Canoe. 

without a single nail, and covered with skins ; and Fig. 82 how 
it is fitted with a mast, and square sail of membrane. Fig. 83 
is an interesting canoe made by the Australian natives, with 
bark sewn on to a framework. Fig. 84 shows swords of the 

Early Iron Age. No. i 
shows an early Halstatt 
pattern, and 2 a later 
La Tene type shown in 
scabbard. The scab- 
bards were in bronze, 
and frequently orna- 
mented with very beau- 
tiful designs. The sword 
blade was of iron, with 
a tang on to which was 
fitted a bronze mount 
to the handle, the latter 
formed of bone or wood 
threaded on to the tang. 
Fig. 84 also shows two 
f^ iron spear-heads of the 
\^ same period which are 
rather different from the 
leaf-shaped patterns of 


84. — Early Iron Age Swords 
and Spears. 


ENAMELS Early Iron 

the Bronze Age. The 
shields were now oblong 
in shape, as that of the 
Belgic man in the cos- 
tume plate (Fig. 56). 
This splendid work of art 
can be seen at the British 
Museum, and is made of 
bronze decorated with Fig. 85.— Enamelled Harness Ornament, 
enamels. This form of 

decoration appears to have developed out of the use of coral, 
added as an ornament to bronze. Then Early Iron Age 
metalworkers made studs, with an enamel surface, and pinned 
these to the bronze. This led the way to the crowning glory 
of his work, Champleve enameUing. Here the field of the 
design was graved out of the metal, and the ground being 
first scored to give a key was filled in with the fused enamel, 
which, being pohshed, was finished flush with the face. Fig. 85, 
of an enamelled harness ornament, shows to what mastery 
of line the designers had now advanced. Think of the splendid 
appearance of an Early Iron Age chieftain ; his helmet, shield, 
and horse-mountings all bronze, not dull as now but shining 
like gold, with the enamels afire like liquid rubies. The 
earliest enamels were of one colour, red. 

In the Early Iron Age, costume had developed and weaving 
in brilliant colours was practised. It is thought that these 
were combined into primitive tartans. As in the Bronze 
Age, a piece of material was folded around the body, in the 
form of a kilt, and this with a sleeveless vest, and a cloak 
which was semicircular in shape, completed a man's attire. 
The shoes were cut out of hide, with straps attached, and 
gathered round the ankle. The Brythons appear to have 
introduced the loose trousers, which originated with the 
Persians and Scythians. The women wore a long tunic 
reaching to the ankles, with short sleeves. Women, men, 
and horses, all alike, wore beautiful tores, belts, and brooches, 
of bronze and enamel. 

Another thing which was not found at Glastonbury was 
the burial-place, so that we do not know what objects they 
buried with their dead ; fortunately for archaeologists, there 
are many other Early Iron Age cemeteries where this informa- 
tion can be gained. A very important one is at Arras, near 



Fig. 86. — The Bronze Mirror. 

Market Weighton, East 
Riding ; here the barrows 
are small, circular inform, 
not more than 2 feet high 
by about 8 feet diameter. 
The body was not crem- 
ated but buried in a very 
contracted position in a 
cist, or grave cut in the 
chalk. The skulls show 
the people to have been 
long-headed (dolichoceph- 
alic), and here for the 
first time iron is found 
with the body. This 
means either that there 
had been a reversion to 
the old burial customs of 
the Neolithic people, or 
these were introduced 
afresh from the Con- 
tinent ; in any case the 
cremation of the Bronze Age passes away. Again, the long- 
headed skulls may point to a survival of Neolithic people, 
who had absorbed the old round-headed Bronze Age invaders, 
or to fresh invasions from the Continent. Some of the barrows 
at Arras, and in Yorkshire, were found to contain the remains 
of chariots, and these resemble the chariot burials in France ; 
this rather points to the Yorkshire barrows being the work of 
invaders. The tyres of the chariots there are about 2 feet 
8 inches in diameter, and parts of the oak rims, or fellies 
were found, mortised for as many as 16 spokes. There were 
nave collars, for the hubs, of iron plated with bronze, and 
the skeletons of horses of about 13 hands. We saw the 
beginnings of chariots at Heathery Burn Cave in the Bronze 
Age, and it is obvious that by the time of the Early Iron Age 
these played an important part in everyday life. We have 
attempted a reconstruction in our Frontispiece, Fig. i. 
Many of the Yorkshire barrows suggest that women were 
buried in them. In one was found one hundred glass 
beads of a beautiful deep blue colour, ringed and spotted 
with white ; others were of clear green glass with a white 


BURIALS Early Iron 

line. There were rings of amber and gold, and bracelets 
of bronze. 

In the mounds were broken pottery, and the bones of 
animals, and charcoal, as if there had been a funeral feast. 
An iron mirror was found at Arras, very much rusted of course. 
Fig. 86 shows one of bronze of a more usual type. 

We can now pass on to the latest type of burials in this 
country, and there is but little doubt that these were the work 
of Belgic invaders. They were discovered in 1886, at Ayles- 
ford in Kent. This was in the Belgic country, and here we 
find that cremation had again been introduced, and the 
Belgae appear to have maintained this custom. 

The cist, or grave, covered by a barrow, had passed out of 
fashion, and its place had been taken by a circular pit, about 
3 feet 6 inches deep, the sides and bottom of which were 
daubed with chalky clay. In the pit were found burnt 
bones, and the fragments of the pottery cinerary urns, in 
which there had been placed a pail, flagon, skillet, or shallow 
saucepan, and brooches all of bronze. The custom evidently 
still persisted of burying objects which had belonged to the 
dead, because it had some symbolical meaning ; or for their 
use in the spirit world ; or because it would have been unlucky 
to retain the objects in everyday use. The pail is of the type 
carried by the Belgic girl in the costume plate (Fig. 56). The 
flagon of a very beautiful shape must have been imported 
from Italy. 

The Aylesford pottery marks a great advance. It is of 
very graceful shape, and must have been turned on a wheel, 
and given a lustrous black surface in the firing. The wheel 
may have been of the turn-table type described on page 97, 
and shown at A in Fig. 87, or the potters may have advanced 
so far as the wheel shown at B. This is a very primitive 
type, which was used until lately for making flower-pots and 

Except for this important detail of the reintroduction of 
cremation, the Belgae do not seem to have effected any very 
great alteration in the everj-'day life of the times. They were 
a fierce fighting people, and conquered the S.E. districts. 
This gave them possession of the iron mines of the Sussex 
Weald, which was to be the Black Country of England until 
the eighteenth century. 

The Brythons and the older GoideUc stock of the Bronze 


Fig. 87. — A Potter's Wheel. 

Age, and the people of Iberian descent as at Glastonbury, 
learned to use iron but continued to live their lives in their 
own way. Fig. 88 illustrates the use of bronze bowls as 
water-clocks. These were put to float in a larger bowl, and 
being perforated at the bottom, slowly filled, and in a certain 
time sank, and were then emptied by an attendant and 
refloated, to re-sink in another period. Fig. 89 shows 
late Celtic ornament. We saw by Fig. 61 how the Bronze 
Age peoples' patterns were chevrons, lozenges, and concentric 
circles, and the Early Iron Age saw the introduction of the 



Early Iron 

Fig. 88.— Water Clock. 

curve, and the endless 
possibilities which come 
about through combina- 
tion of curves. 

Leaving the smaller 
works of man, we find 
that the old hill forts 
were not yet abandoned : 
Worlebury, at the W. 
end of the Mendips ; Hod 
Hill, near Blandford ; 
Bigbury, on the Pil- 
grims' Way; Winkelbury, 
S. Wilts; Mt. Caburn, 
Lewes ; and Cissbury, 
near Worthing, have all 

yielded Late Celtic remains, and the trackways between the 
hill forts had developed into an entirely adequate road 
system. We do not mean by this macadam surfaces, granite 
curbing, and paved footpaths ; the roads would have been 
well-worn grass tracks on the high lands, with stone cobbles 
perhaps in the marshy places. 

Just as we were finishing this book, we came across Early 
British Trackways, by Mr. Alfred Watkins, and we recom- 
mend this to our readers as containing an idea of the greatest 
interest. The book came about, because Mr. Watkins' 
attention was attracted by a straight line on a map, which 
appeared to pass through a certain class of objects. On 
exploration it was found that this line consisted in parts of 
old trackways which at one time had linked up places on the 
line. Having got the idea, Mr. Watkins proceeded to test 
it wherever possible. Taking the i-inch scale ordnance, he 
selects barrows or tumuli, castle mounds or camps, standing 
stones and menhirs, churches and wayside crosses, and 
sticking a pin in the map on one, the game is to see how many 
places can be found on a line ; when there are not less than 
four, the actual country is surveyed, when, more often than 
not, a piece of modern road may farther along become a 
grass track, and then be lost in ploughed land, to reappear 
beyond as a footpath. This at once fired us, and out came 
our maps. We found that from where the Ridgeway and 
Fairmile descend the Berkshire Downs, and come down to 



the Thames by the Ferry at South Stoke, if a straight line 
is drawn on the map, from the trigonometrical station of the 
Ordnance Survey on White Hill 293 above the Ferry, to the 
camp at Ravensburgh Castle in the parish of Hexton in 
N. Herts, about 40 miles away, it picks up many interesting 
points. There is another trigonometrical station on Harcourt 
Hill 610, then Whiteleaf Cross cut in the chalk near Monks 
Rizborough and the mound on Pulpit Hill. From Beacon 
Hill above Aston Clinton you look down on The Moat at 
Pilstone as a reflection point at a lower level, and to the N.E. 
can see Icknield Way coming over the shoulder of Beacon 
Hill at Ivinghoe. Then, again, the Five Knolls tumuli by 
Dunstable point the way to Ravensburgh Castle, and Icknield 
Way meanders along the escarpment of the Chilterns, some- 
times on the line and sometimes a little below it. 

It can hardly be coincidence, which, though its arm be long, 
could scarcely stretch for 40 miles and put so many points 
on the same straight line. With some experience of land 
surveying, we think we should find it a very difficult matter 
to lay out such a line, up hill and down dale, over 40 miles 
of country, of so diverse a character as the Chilterns ; and 
this is what these old road surveyors seem to have done. 
If this was the case, then we have to accept the fact that 
long before the Romans there were men laying out roads 
by very much the same methods as the Royal Engineer sur- 
veyors of the Ordnance Survey ; so much was this the case, 
that when we came to make our own survey we accepted 
the view-points of prehistoric man as being suitable for 
trigonometrical stations. 

It is just one more illustration, which goes to prove that 
when we think of prehistoric men as just so many roving 
barbarians we are hopelessly out of touch with truth. 

As the trackways were developed, and people were better 
able to travel, the tribal centres grew into the capitals of 
kingdoms, the chieftains became kings. Camulodunum, or 
Colchester, was the chief town of the Trinovantes ; Verulam- 
ium, or St. Albans, of the Catuvellauni, and Cassivellaunus 
was their king. Caesar is supposed to have referred to St. 
Albans, when he wrote of " an oppidum with the Britons is a 
place amidst dense forest, fortified by a rampart or ditch, 
whither it is their habit to assemble to escape an enemy's 
raid." Corinium (Cirencester) was the home of the Dobuni ; 


Early Iron 

O OOOOOO OO OOP oooooocooooooooooooooooc 


Fig. 89. — Late Celtic Patterns. 


Calleva (Silchester) of the Atrebates ; London of the Cantii. 
Women were allowed to be Queens. Cartismandua was 
Queen of the Brigantes, and their country was the Pennines, 
and Boudicca (Boadicea) of the Iceni. 

In the Bronze Age chapter, we discussed Trade and Trafific 
on page y6, and this brings up the question of money or the 
currency which is used as a medium for that exchange of 
goods, which is the basis of Trade, It has been suggested 
that the gold bracelets of the Bronze Age may have been used 
as money ; these have been found with rings fastened to them, 
and are called Ring-money, and the idea does not seem too 
wildly remote. This is hardly the case with Fig. 90, which 
illustrates iron currency bars, and we can imagine our readers, 
unless they are born financiers, saying, " How on earth could 
anyone buy anything with a sort of iron walking-stick." We 
are quite sure that many boys and girls have been puzzled by 
the various methods which have been adopted by different 
peoples. There was the British sovereign of gold now 
unhappily extinct ; its dirty greasy successor, so typical of 
the time, the Treasury note ; one has heard of cowrie-shells, 
and so on ; in all parts of the world different things seem to be 
used, but none so odd perhaps as the iron bars of the Early 
Iron Age. 

Of the two currency bars found at Glastonbury, one is 
27|- inches long, and weighs 4666 grains, the other, 21^ inches, 
but much thicker than number one, weighs 9097 grains. 
Mr. Reginald Smith has identified currency bars with the 
tale(2 jevvecB of Caesar {Bell. Gall. v. 12), and it is thought 
that there were six varieties, the British unit being about 
4770 grains. Bars of \, \, i, \\, 2, and 4 have been identified. 
The map (Fig. 3) shows where bars have been found in Eng- 
land, and is a proof of the wide distribution of trade even in 
the Early Iron Age. 

Perhaps we can give an illustration which will show how 
these things become accepted as currency. In remote 
villages in this country in pre-war days, it was usual to have 
a settling-up day once a year after harvest ; during the rest 
of the year the people ran bills, which they chalked up on the 
barn-door. At settling time the farmer would go to the 
miller and say, " How do we stand," to which the miller 
replied, " I have ground your corn, but you had some of the 
flour, and I sold the remainder, and owe you ;^5." The miller 



Early Iron 

Fig. 90. — Currency Bars. 

went to the baker who 
said, " Yes, I had my 
flour from you, but sup- 
pUed you with bread, 
and owe you £<•)." The 
butcher bought his beasts 
from the farmer, but sold 
his meat to all the vil- 
lage, and so they weighed 
up the matter, and came 
to a settlement. It is 
quite conceivable that 
the same ^5 note, with 
a little small change, 
would have passed from 
hand to hand, and en- 
abled the village to start 
on another year's trading 
all square ; if instead of 
the £^ note, you had an 
iron bar, it really did 
not matter so much — 
in fact it was rather 

better, because like our extinct gold sovereign, it was a thing 
of value itself, which is more than can be said of the Treasury 
note. Intertribal and international trade, though more 
complicated, was, and still is, conducted on this same basis, 
of the exchange of commodities. It is well to remember this, 
when so large a part of what is called business to-day is in 
reality only a gamble with the product of other men's labour. 
Real wealth springs from mother earth, and real work is to 
be engaged in winning or shaping her treasures. 

We find a less extraordinary currency than the iron bars, 
about 150 to 200 B.C., in a British gold coinage of modern 
type of two values. This appears to have started in the S.E., 
and as some of these coins are inscribed, it shows that writing 
had progressed. 

The unit system of the currency bars is proof of some 
system of weights and measures, and another is given by the 
beautiful pots, bowls, and metal work. A good craftsman 
does not make a thing to just any odd size. Use will have 
shown him what is the handiest weight, and the best size. A 

H m 


modern brick, for example, is of the size and weight that 
experience has shown the bricklayer can handle. Endless 
experiment has gone to prove this, and all the other details 
of everyday work and the tallies or the sticks, which were kept 
as a reminder, became in time recognized standards and 

The currency bars are proof of the exchange of commodities, 
but do not help us to understand how values were fixed ; 
how much corn a plough was worth. With such necessaries of 
life, the plough was worth the extra amount of corn the farmer 
could grow by its use ; that would be its just price in theory. 
In practice it is often regulated by scarcity, which tends to 
increase the price of the plough, or by overproduction, when 
the price of ploughs goes down. Then there are luxuries, 
for which people will pay more than they are worth, because 
they are beautful, or very scarce, and so on. All this wants to 
be borne in mind ; we shall find how in the Middle Ages, 
Canon Law was very much concerned with the Just Price and 
Usury, and even to-day a Profiteer is not held to be a very 
pleasant person. Trade and currency bars ; weights and 
measures ; the honesty of the good man, and even the thieving 
of the rogue, are part of that wonderful peep-show into the 
past we call History, and cannot be neglected. 

Now as we are approaching the end of our space, it may be 
as well to see if we can discover anything of the animating 
spirit which inspired these people, and gave savour to their 
everyday life. We saw in Neolithic times how men are 
thought to have worshipped the powers of Nature, with a great 
Mother God over all. Gildas, a monk, writing in the sixth 
century a.d., said : " Nor will I cry out upon the mountains, 
fountains, or hills, or upon the rivers, which now are sub- 
servient to the use of men, but once were an abomination and 
destruction to them, and to which the blind people paid divine 
honour." Yet Nature worship still lingers -wath stones which 
are lucky, and wells whose waters are curative. 

Sun worship appears to have been typical of the early 
Bronze Age, and with the arrival of the Celts may have taken 
the form of Hero worship. It is probable that in the Early Iron 
Age, as the gods became more personal and intimate, they took 
to themselves as well the failings of man ; as they were stronger 
and braver than man, in the perpetual warfare they waged with 
the powers of darkness, so also they were more cruel and hard. 


LIFE Early Iron 

Druidism appears to have been the reUgion of the later 
Celtic tribes of Britain and Gaul, but doubtless it was grafted 
on to the Hero and Sun worship of the Bronze Age, and the 
older Nature and Moon worship of the Iberians. This has 
been a very general practice ; a conquering people would be 
willing to place the credit of the victory to the power of 
their own gods, yet unwilling to neglect the ones who had 
been overthrown. A god was a god, even when associated 
with defeat, and might easily revenge himself by alliance 
with the powers of Darkness. It was wiser then not to run 
any risks, so we find old Faiths adapted to New Religions. 

Caesar in De Bello Gallico, book vi., gives us an interesting 
picture of Druids and Druidism, and other sources of inspira- 
tion are the Celtic Myths and Legends that Mr. Squire 
has gathered together in his book. These tales have come 
down to us, because they were gathered together by monkish 
chroniclers, from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries, but 
for all the time before that they had been traditional in the 
Celtic countries, since the days when they were first recited 
by Druidical bards to the accompaniment of harps. 

Caesar wrote of the Druids : " As one of their leading dogmas, 
they inculcate this : that souls are not annihilated, but pass 
after death from one body to another, and they hold that by 
this teaching men are much encouraged to valour, through 
disregarding the fear of death. They also discuss and impart 
to the young many things concerning the heavenly bodies 
and their movements, the size of the world and our earth, 
natural science, and of the influence and power of the immortal 
gods." Again quoting Caesar: "The whole Gaulish nation 
is to a great degree devoted to superstitious rites ; and on 
this account those who are afflicted with severe diseases, 
or who are engaged in battles and dangers, either sacrifice 
human beings for victims, or vow that they will immolate 
themselves, these employ the Druids as ministers for such 
sacrifices, because they think that, unless the life of man 
be repaid for the life of man, the will of the immortal gods 
cannot be appeased. Others make wicker-work images of 
vast size, the limbs of which they fill with living men and 
set on fire." 

From the little that is known, it can be gathered that 
the Druids formed a religious aristocracy, to which entrance 
could only be gained by a long novitiate. There was a Head, 



or Pope, elected for life ; they were exempt from war and 
taxation ; acted as judges, and had a monopoly of learning. 
Time was reckoned by nights, and the year counted by the 
revolutions of the moon. Fig. 88 shows a water-clock which 
is supposed to have been invented by the Druids. 

White bulls were sacrificed before the mistletoe was cut 
from the sacred oak. Captives were killed, and signs read 
from the flow of their blood, and the palpitation of their 

The Gaulish Druids looked to their British brethren, as 
possessed of a purer faith, and novices were sent here to 
learn the mysteries. This came about because the Continent 
fell under the influence of Rome at an earlier date than we 
did ; for the same reason, with the advent of the Romans 
here, Druidism was driven into the West, because its practices 
shocked even the Romans, until they finally routed it out of 
its headquarters in Anglesey. It survived in Ireland, which 
never fell under the Roman influence, until S. Patrick over- 
threw Cromm Cruaich. 

If the Celtic legends are poisoned by hints of awful cruelty, 
we must yet remember that it was not the cruelty of the 
Romans, who enjoyed the killing in the Amphitheatre, but 
the religion of sacrifice carried to its most awful conclusion. 
The Druids were not cruel for cruelty's sake, but to propitiate 
the gods. 

On the other side of the picture, we have the pleasant fact 
that the Celtic Myths and Legends, becoming traditional, 
were handed down, and became in the hands of the monkish 
chroniclers the foundation on which has been built a Litera- 
ture which is entirely our own. 

We have seen what great artists the Celts were, when they 
turned to handicraft ; their metal work, and enamels, have 
been the inspiration of many an artistic revival, hailed as 
new, and yet in reality just as old as the Druids. 

The great Celtic festivals were Beltane at the beginning 
of May, Midsummer Day, the Feast of Lugh in August, 
and Samhain. We still have survivals of these in May Day, 
S. John's Day, Lammas, and Hallow-e'en or All Saints, and 
the bonfires around which we dance on joyful occasions, 
started life as the sacrificial pyres on which victims were 
burned to propitiate the gods, or cattle offered to stay the 
ravages of a murrain, or plague, at the original Celtic festivals. 


LEGENDS Early Iron 

There is a poem to Cromm Cruaich in the Books of Leinsler 
which seems to us to explain the spirit of the times : 

" Here used to be 
A high idol with many lights, 
Which was named the Cromm Cruaich ; 
It made every tribe to be without peace. 

'Twas a sad evil ! 

Brave Gaels used to worship it. 

From it they would not without tribute ask 

To be satisfied as to their portion of the hard world. 

To him without glory 

They would kill their piteous, wretched offspring 

With much wailing and peril, 

To pour their blood around Cromm Cruaich. 

Milk and corn 

They would ask from him speedily 

In return for one-third of their healthy issue : 

Great was the horror and the scare of him." 

The books of Leinster were compiled early in the twelfth 
century by Finn macGorman, Bishop of Kildare, and he as 
a Christian may perhaps have twisted the tale a little to make 
Cromm a slightly worse fellow than he was, so as to emphasize 
the importance of his destruction by the " good Patrick of 
Macha," yet on the whole there is little doubt that in the days 
of the Druids, the world was ruled by Horror. 

If we understand this, it also explains how it was, that 
when an obscure Jew was crucified in Palestine, and left 
behind a handful of disciples, who preached that God was 
Love, it came as a light to lighten the darkness in a world 
that was horrible to the poor and oppressed, and held little 
comfort for them ; and here, for a time, our story ends. 



Note. — The ordinary figures denote references to pages of text, 
those in black type, the Illustrations. 

Adze, 1 8, 94. 

Agger, 28. 

Agriculture, 17, 27. 

Alignment, 41. 

Alpine, 9, 10. 

Animals, 6. 

Armlets, 58. 

Arrow-heads, ig. 

Aryans, 12. 

Awls, 58. 

Axes and hammers, 17, 18, 100. 

Azilian, i. 


Badbury Rings, 28, 29, 31. 

Barrow, 71, 72, 73. 

Beads, 106. 

Beaker people, 11. 

Belg , 14, 84, 107. 

Bellows, 93. 

Bermes, 30, 32. 

BiU-hook, 95. 

Boring, 18. 

Bread, 34. 

Bridge, 67. 

Bridles, 58, 63, 65. 

Bronze, 52. 

— Age men, 11, 51, 52. 

Brooches, 58, 95, 96, 97. 

Brythons, 14, 84. 

Bucket, 58. 

Bulb of percussion, 15, 16. 

Burial, 71, 106, 107. 

Camps, 5, 6. 

Canoes, 2, 7, 90, 104. 

Carding, 59. 

Cattle, 6. 

Cave men, i. 

Celtic art, 84. 

Celts, 12, 66. 

— or axes, 17, 18, 51, 53, 55. 

Chalk, 4. 

Chariots, 66, 92, 106. 

Chisel, 58. 

Cist, 71. 

Clocks, 109. 

Clothing, 23. 

Coal money, 98. 

Coldrum, 6. 

Comb, 63. 

Cooking hearths, 21. 

Coracle, 102. 

Core, 15. 

Costume, 62, 63, 105. 

Counterscarp, 30. 
Cromlech, 41. 
Crucibles, 93. 
Currency bars, 113. 


Danish midden axe, 3. 
Deadfall trap, 35. 
Deer-horn implements, 14. 
Dew pond, 33. 
Dice, 100. 
Discs, 58, 72. 
Dog, 3. 

Dolmen, 41, 42. 
Druids, 50, 115. 

Earth-house, 38. 
Earthworks, 27. 
Elf darts, 20. 
Enamel, 105. 
Escarpment, 30. 
Eskimo huts, 40. 
European races, 8. 

Festivals, 116. 
Flakes, 15, 19. 
Flint flaking, 15. 

— implements, 14, 15, i6. 

— miners, 13. 

— spears, 19. 
Fosse, 28. 

Gaels, 12. 

Gate into England, 4. 

Glastonbury, 83 85, 86, 87, 89, 91. 

Goidels, 11, 12, 14, 66, 82. 

Gouge, 58. 

Grinding corn, 24, 92. 


Hammers, 15, 17, 18, 58. 

Herdsmen, 4. 

Heroes, 39. 

Hill forts, 7, 8, 109. 

Houses, 20. 

Hubs, 58, 64. 

Hut circles, 20, 32. 

Huts, 69, 87, 88. 

Iberians, loi. 

Implements, 17. 
Iron, 93. 



Javelins, 19. 

Kitchen middens, 2. 
Kitscoty, 6. 
Knives, 58, 94. 


Lances, 19. 

Lathe, 66, 98, 99. 

Leverage, 43. 

Linces, the, Cheddington, Bucks, vi. 

Loess, 75. 

Long barrows, 23, 37. 

Loom, 61, 62. 

Lynchets, 17, 24. 

Maiden Castle, 28. 
Map of England, xi, xii. 
Mediterranean, 9. 
Megalithic builders, 44. 
■ — monuments, 10, 38, 41. 
Menhir, 41, 42. 
Metals, 79. 

Migrations, 10, 12, 75. 
Mirror, 106. 
Money, 112. 

Neolithic huts, 21, 22. 

— man, 7. 

— period, 8. 
Nordic, 9, 11. 
Nucleus, 15. 

Oppidum, no. 
Ornament, 70, 105, m. 

Palisades, 32. 

Pattern, 27. 

Peytrel, 65. 

Picks, 15, 30. 

Picts, 23. 

Picts house, 39. 

— tower, 41. 

Pilgrims' way, 6. 

Pins, 58. 

Pit dwelling, 20, 21. 

Plough, 68. 

PIou;hin-;, 92. 

Potter's wheel, 108. 

Pottery, 25, 26, 27, 69, 71, 97, 107. 

Pounding grain, 25. 

Prickers, 58. 

Querns, 24. 

Rampart, 28. 
Rapier, 56. 
Razor, 58, 64. 
Revetment, 30. 
Rings, 58, 95. 
River drift, i. 
Rivers, 7. 
Roman camps, 

Sacrifice, 48. 

Saw, 94. 

Scrapers, 18, 22. 

Shield, 58, 105. 

Ships, 78. 

Shovels, 15, 30. 

Sickle, 23, 24. 

Skewers, 58. 

Slaves, 36, 39. 

Smelting, 22, 54, 93. 

Smith, 57. 

Social life, 35. 

Spears, 55, 104. 

Spindle whorls, 58, 59. 

Spinning, 59, 60, 97- 

Stonehen.-e, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49. 

Strike-a-light, 19, 22, 24. 

Sun temples, 48. 

Swiss lake dwellings, 84. 

Sword, 56, 104. 

Teasing, 59. 

Terremare, 84. 

Tin, 79. 

Tongs, 58. 

Trackways, 6, 8, 36, 80, 109. 

Trade routes, 77, 78. 

Trilithon, 41. 

Trumpet, 68. 

Umiak, 103. 
VaUum, 28. 



War, 36. 

Warp, 60. 

Warriors and chariot of the Early Iron 

Age, frontispiece. 
Water supply, 32. 
Weaving, 60. 
Weft, 61. 
Wheel, 64, 66. 
Worship, 114. 




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LAND, 1066-1799. Written and Illustrated by MARJORIE 
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Written primarily for lioys and girls of public-school age, this account of 
the English People in their everyday life, of their surroundings, their be- 
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CoNTKN IS : — Norman England and its People: Conditions before the 
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Peasantry England in the Thirteenth Century: Costume — Monks 
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Middle Ages — Farms and Gardens — Amusements. The Fourteenth 
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Travelling— The Black Death. Life in Fifteenth Century England: 
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Games, Mysteries, and Morris Dancers — Dress, Jewellery, and Ornaments — 
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Contents: — The XVIth Century: The Reformation— Ships and Sea 
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Part I. England under Foreign 
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Part II. The Rise of Parliament 
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B. T. 




GN Quennell, Marjorie 

743 (Courteney) 

"55 Everyday life in prehist- 

oric times. 2v. ir. 1.